112 terms

Exam 4

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DNA
Double stranded structure within genes
RNA
Single-stranded structure
Nitrogenous base, 5-carbon sugar, and Phosphate group
DNA and RNA contains these three things
Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine
These nitrogenous bases are found in DNA
Uracil
This nitrogenous base is swapped from thymine in RNA
Watson and Crick
These two scientists deduced the secondary structure of DNA
Transcription
This is the synthesis of RNA from DNA
The nucleus
Where does transcription take place for eukaryotes?
The cytoplasm
Where does translation take place for both eukaryotes and prokaryotes?
Translation
The making of protein from the nucleic acid, RNA
DNA replication, transcription, and translation
What are the steps for protein synthesis?
DNA replication
The duplication of daughter DNA strands from parent DNA strands.
Bubbles
DNA replication begins at sites called this, which are regions of unwinding on the parent DNA strand.
Template strand
Each parent DNA strand serves as the blank for replication of a new daughter strand.
DNA polymerase and DNA ligase
What enzymes are needed for DNA replication?
DNA polymerase
This enzyme adds nucleotides to a growing daughter DNA strand.
Replication fork
DNA polymerase adds nucleotides on a growing daughter DNA strand until reaching this, a region of rewinding on DNA.
Okazaki fragments
Short fragments of DNA formed by the discontinuous addition of nucleotides
DNA polymerase
This proofreads daughter Dna strands by removal of incorrect base pairs
DNA polymerase
This repairs damaged/altered dna
RNA polymerase
This enzyme adds nucleotides on the growing RNA strand
Iniation, elongation and termination
3 stages of transcription
Initiation
During this stage of transcription, the enzyme RNA polymerase binds to a promoter region on the DNA template strand.
Iniation
During this stage of transcription, separation of both DNA strands occurs and transcription is initiated.
Elongation
This is the growing phase of transcription, in which RNA polymerase continues transcription.
Elongation
This stage of transcription forms a growing strand of RNA
Elongation
DNA strands recoil at already transcribed regions during this phase of transcription.
Termination
The enzyme RNA polymerase detaches at a region on the DNA template strand called the terminator region, causing the cessation of transcription.
messenger RNA
This is synthesized in the nucleus by adding a poly-A tail and a cap.
poly-A tail
The addition of several adenine bases to one end of eukaryotic RNA
cap
The addition of a single guanine base to the other end of eukaryotic RNA
Introns
The removal of noncoding regions of the RNA sequence
Exons
The joining of coding regions of the RNA sequence. These contain the genes that are to be expressed.
Translation
This is the process by which a sequence of RNA becomes translated to protein
Cytoplasm
Where does translation take place?
Cell's cytoplasm
Polymers of proteins or polypeptides are formed in the blank
Polymers
These are formed by monomers of amino acids binding to adjacent monomers of amino acids.
Essential amino acids
These types of amino acids are derived from food
Non-essential amino acids
These types of amino acids are from major metabolic processes of the body
Ribosomes
These are used as catalysts during translation
Codon region
This region contains the sequence that is to be translated into an amino acid on a growing strand of polypeptide.
Anticodon region
This region of a molecule of tRNA contains the sequence that is complementary to the mRNA sequence.
Genetic code
For the translation of RNA into amino acids, all organisms use the same blank
Start codon
Synthesis of a protein begins here on a RNA molecule
Stop codon
Synthesis of a protein ends here on a RNA molecule
Initiation, Elongation, and Termination
What are the steps of translation?
Initiation
In this stage of translation, a mRNA binds to a small ribosomal subunit
initiator tRNA molecule
This molecule binds to mRNA during initiation at the start codon to initiate translation
Initiation
In this stage of translation, a large ribosomal subunit binds to the small ribosomal subunit
Elongation
In this stage of translation, the codon of the mRNA molecule binds to the anticodon region of the tRNA molecule.
Methionine
What is the name of the first amino acid that is formed by translation?
Peptide bond formation
In this stage of elongation, peptide bonds form between adjacent monomers of a growing strand of a polypeptide.
tRNA molecule
A different blank is required for the addition of each amino acid.
translocation stage
In this stage of elongation, there is a movement of the tRNA molecule used in the previous addition of the amino acid. This is so a new tRNA molecule can bind to a new region of the mRNA molecule to be translated.
Stop codon
The process of translation is terminated when the tRNA molecule reaches a blank on mRNA
Stop codon
This is the only region of a RNA molecule that does not translate to an amino acid.
Termination
At the end of translation, the formed polypeptide protein is released into the cytoplasm and the ribosomal subunits come apart. This is the blank stage.
Transformation
This is when DNA is acquired from the surrounding environment
Transduction
Gene transfer that required the use of phages.
Phages
These are virally infected pieces of DNA that can be acquired by contact with viruses.
R plasmid
If an organism contains genes that provide resistance against antibiotics, the organism has acquired this.
Lysis
Replication of the viral genome in a bacterial host cell is by incorporating its genetic material into a bacterial cell and leaving by this.
Prophage
Replication of the vial genome in a bacterial host is by incorporating its genetic material into a bacterial chromosome to form a blank
Outer envelope
If the host organism is a plant or animal, replication of the viral genome is by fusing with the host cell's plasma membrane using surface glycoproteins on blank
Influenza virus
This virus differs in the types of surface proteins on outer envelope.
Stimulate antibody production
Seasonal flu vaccines are made to do this
Reverse transcriptase
HIV uses this enzyme to transcribe DNA from RNA once inside the nucleus of a host cell
Lac operon
The region on the DNA of E.coli that allows them to metabolize lactose when it is present is called this
Trp operon
This contains biosynthesis genes for making tryptophan
Inactivated
In the presence of lactose, the repressor is blank
Active
The repressor protein is blank when along
Histone
Each nucleosome is formed when DNA is wrapped around eight blank proteins.
methyl groups
Regions of DNA that are never expressed contain these
Epigenome
This is the set of genes that are actually expressed for an individual
Genome
The set of genes an individual inherits is their
RNA polymerase
This enzyme is required for transcription and can't bind to DNA since the regions aren't available once methyl groups have been added.
Indirect modification
The extent of DNA packing and histone modifications
Direct chemical modification
Turning genes on / off.
Hox genes
Genes that develop early on in embryonic development and determine anatomical characteristics in the adult individual are called this
Transcription factors
Eukaryotes use this to make regions of DNA more available for transcription.
Enhancer regions
These are regions on DNA that activator proteins will bind to
Enhancer regions
These are regions on DNA that are found some place away from the genes that are to be transcribed. This creates a bending int he shape of the DNA molecule.
Promoter region
Other transcription factor proteins interact with the bound activator proteins to collectively form a complex at the gene's blank
Repressor proteins
These make regions of DNA less available for transcription
alternate RNA splicing
Splitting a mRNA strand into a separate mRNA strand.
microRNAs (miRNAs)
Small RNA molecules that can bind to mRNA molecules to block translation
Proto-oncogenic
normal genes
Oncogenes
Cancer-causing genes as a result from DNA alteration
Tumor-supressor genes
These act to suppress uncontrolled cell division by cancer-cells.
4 or more
Usually blank somatic mutations are required to produce a full-fledged malignant cancer cell.
Somatic cells
Cancer is not inherited from parents; it only occurs within blank.
Carcinogens
Cancer usually arises from agents that alter DNA and make cells cancerous called blank
Biotechnology
The manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
DNA technology
The set of modern techniques used to study and manipulate genetic material
Genetic engineering
Direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
Gene cloning
The production of multiple, identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA.
Recombinant DNA
This type of DNA is made from joining nucleotide sequences from two different sources.
Plasmid
A single circular piece of DNA molecule that replicates independently of the bacterial chromosome.
Shiga toxin-producing E.coli
This is the strain of E.coli that is associated with causing food-borne illness in people.
Genetically modifed organisms
These are made by combining one or more genes by artificial means
Transgenic organism
If the newly acquired genes are from another organisms, the recombinant organism is called this
Ti plasmids
Common vectors used for making transgenic plants are this
Microinjection
For making transgenic animals, the cloned gene of interested is injected by this procedure
Polymerase Chain Reaction
This is used to make multiple copies of a DNA fragment in a very short period of time.
Gel electrophoresis
A lab technique used for separation of DNA fragments on an agarose gel based on size or length.
99.9%
Blank of DNA sequences are the same in genome for humans
STR analysis
This compares DNA between different individuals
Genomics
This is the study of an organism's genome or complete set of genes
The Human Genome Project
This project determined the nucleotide sequence of all DNA in the human genome in 2003.
20,000
How many genes do humans have?
Transposable elements
DNA segments that can move or be copied from one location to another within or between chromosomes.
Proteomics
The scientific field in which whole sets of proteins are studied.
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