37 terms

World Studies Chapter 7

Growth of European Exploration
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Prince Henry
This Portuguese prince prepared his sailors for exploration.
Prince Henry contributed to Portuguese exploration by
setting up a school for navigation to prepare his sailors.
Batolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer; turned the corner that would open sea trade with India. Proved they could reach the East by sailing south around Africa.
Vasco da Gama
The first Portuguese explorer to land in India. Led a fleet of four ships on a one-year journey to India.
Cape of Good Hope
southern tip of Africa
Portuguese sailors were willing to endure the risks and difficulties to sail to India because
the items they could buy could then be sold for a great deal of money.
The European country that was first to establish trade with Japan and China was
Portugal.
Francis Xavier
Jesuit missionary; arrived in Japan and sought to convert the people to Roman Catholicism.
Christopher Columbus
He convinced King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to finance his exploration (getting to the East by sailing west.) Hoped to discover a shorter route to China and the Indies. Landed in the Caribbean thinking it was the Indies.
King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
King and queen of Spain; met with Christopher Columbus and were convinced to finance his exploration.
Ferdinand Magellan
He sailed west from Spain in an effort to sail around the world. He was killed in the Philippines, but his crew continued the voyage and proved you could reach the East by sailing west.
Sir Francis Drake
He was sent by Queen Elizabeth to sail around the world, explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada (1540-1596)
conquistadors
Spanish for "conquerors"; men sent to America from Spain to find gold, conquer the people, and convert them to Roman Catholicism.
Hernando Cortes
He encountered the Aztecs in Mexico; convinced Montezuma that the king of Spain was Quetzalcoatl and demanded the Aztecs submit to him as the king's representative. He eventually killed most of the Aztecs.
Montezuma
This was the ruler of the Aztecs when the Spanish conquistadors arrived.
Francisco Pizarro
He traveled to the new world to find gold, and used violent methods to get it. He went to the Inca Empire, and took the Inca, Atahualpa, captive. He destroyed Cuzco and founded the city of Lima.
Atahualpa
Ruler of the Inca Empire; taken captive by Francisco Pizarro. The Inca offered to fill the room with gold and silver in exchange for his release. They delivered on their promise, but Pizarro murdered him anyway.
Battle of Lepanto
1571; an alliance of Roman Catholic nations, led by Phillip II of Spain, defeated the Ottoman naval fleet
China's response to European exploration
China allowed limited trade with the Europeans. Chinese government remained strong and European trade remained limited. Europeans continued to pressure China to open its borders for more trade and on terms that were favorable to the Europeans.
Bartolome de las casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish settlers to compel Amerindians to labor, (476
dead reckoning
a method of navigation using measurements or estimates of distance traveled and applying it to maps to determine position
Pueblos
Towns
Mound Builders
native American civilizations of the eastern region of north America that created distinctive earthen works that served as elaborate burial places
effigy mounds
burial mounds shaped like animals, found in late woodland era, made to look like they were in movement, ceremonial centers
Iroquois Federation
-most powerful native group
-Mohawk ,Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida
-defensive alliance
Five Civilized Tribes
Name of the most populous Indian tribes in the Indian Territory: Cherokee, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles; they sided w/ confederacy
Mayas
A Native American people, living in what is now Mexico and northern Central America, who had a flourishing civilization from before the birth of Jesus until around 1600, when they were conquered by the Spanish. They are known for their astronomical observations, accurate calendars sophisticated hieroglyphics, and pyramids.
Aztecs
The Aztecs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshiped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
Tenochtitlan
The capital city of the Aztec sitting directly over what is now Mexico city
Quetzalcoatl
Aztec nature god, feathered serpent, his disappearance and promised return coincided with the arrival of Cortes
Incas
A Native American people who built a notable civilization in western South America in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The center of their empire was in present-day Peru. Francisco Pizarro of Spain conquered the empire.
Cuzco
capital of ancient Incan empire, located in present-day Peru
Prester John
A mythical Christian monarch whose kingdom supposedly had been cut off from Europe by the Muslim conquests; some thought he was Chinggis Khan.
Caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
trade winds
Prevailing winds that blow northeast from 30 degrees north latitude to the equator and that blow southeast from 30 degrees south latitude to the equator
Compass
navigational instrument for finding directions- its invention was one of the technological inventions that made the age of exploration possible
Astrolabe
An instrument invented by Muslims that is used to determine direction by figuring out the position of the stars.