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50 terms

memory test

Memory Test
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massed practice
You decide that you are going to memorize the poem until you get it right. You are not to stop until the poem is completely memorized. This is an example of
recognition; recall
You witnessed a murder. Weeks later, you are called to view a police line up in which you are to pick out the murderer from a line up. Later you are called to the witness chair during the trial to tell what you saw. In the police lineup, you are using _____ while in the trial you are using _____.
visual imagery
Mnemonic devices such as the "peg-word" system make effective use of:
retrieval cues
Memories are primed by:
short-term memory
Which memory system is referred to in your text as "working memory"?
rehearsal
In an effort to remember how to spell "rhinoceros," Samantha spells the word aloud 30 times. She is using a technique known as:
Bailey will have better recall of the words because she used semantic encoding
Two students took a memory test. Twenty nouns were shown sequentially on a TV monitor. Mallory tried to think of rhymes for each word as it appeared on the monitor. Bailey tried to think of ways each word could be used in a sentence. Based on Craik and Lockhart's levels-of-processing theory, you should predict that
conceptual hierarchies
Meredith is trying to memorize the various eras and periods in the geologic table. She begins by memorizing the Cenozoic, Mesozoic and Paleozoic as three eras. She then memorizes the three periods from the Cenozoic, the three periods from the Mesozoic and the six periods from the Paleozoic. Meredith's method of organizing the material she is trying to remember illustrates the concept of
explicit
Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.
recall
An essay questions is an example of what type of remembering?
deja vu
The eerie sense of having previously experienced a situation is known as:
long-term
A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory.
motivated forgetting
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates:
iconic
The address for obtaining tickets to a popular quiz show flashes on the TV screen, but the image disappears before Sergei has had a chance to write down the complete address. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory.
automatic processing
During her psychology test, Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term "proactive interference." Surprisingly, however, she accurately remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of:
the misinformation effect
Participants in one experiment were given entirely fabricated accounts of an occasion in which they had been lost in a shopping mall during their childhood. Many of these participants later falsely recollected vivid details of the experience as having actually occurred. This experiment best illustrated:
working
To recognize the active information processing that occurs in short-term memory, researchers have characterized it as ________ memory.
hippocampus; cerebellum
Explicit memory is to ________ as implicit memory is to ________.
proactive inhibition
A common difficulty for newly married women is remembering to sign their married name. The problem is a result of
chunking
Jade rearranges the letters HI TRE DBA T into "hit red bat." This is an example of
the role of schemas in long-term memory
Brock was describing the inside of his doctor's office to one of his friends. In his description he mentions that there were two diplomas on the wall, even though this doctor does not have any diplomas displayed on the wall. Brock's error in recall illustrates
rehearsal network
Nodes representing concepts joined together by pathways that link related concepts is referred to as a
an increase in a neuron's firing potential
Long-term potentiation refers to:
feedback
Knowledge of one's results is the definition of
overlearned the material
If you learn something past the point of mastery, we say you have done what?
encoding
Automatic processing and effortful processing involve two types of:
serial position
The tendency to immediately recall the first and last items in a list better than the middle items is known as the ________ effect.
transfer
The effect of previous learning on present learning is the definition of
implicit
Many people retain their classically conditioned fears without any conscious recollection of how or when those fears were learned. This best illustrates ________ memory.
structural, phonemic, structural
Which of the following sequences represents progressively deeper levels of processing?
priming
Shortly after you see a missing-child poster you are more likely to interpret an ambiguous adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. This best illustrates the impact of:
encoding, storage, retrieval
The order of the basic memory processes in which information enters our memory system and is used later is
retrieval failure
Sigmund Freud emphasized that the forgetting of painful experiences is caused by a process that involves:
proactive interference
Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions in order to avoid:
visual stimulation; auditory stimulation
Iconic memory is to echoic memory as ________ is to ________.
source amnesia
As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog. Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him. Andre's false recollection best illustrates:
acoustic encoding
Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of:
retrieval
The process of recalling information from memory is referred to as
retention; acquisition
Storage is to encoding as ________ is to ________.
mood-congruent memory
The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to:
serial position effect
Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to the:
positive transfer
When Jim learned to drive, he learned using an automatic transmission. Now Jim is attempting to learning a manual transmission, but finds he is very confused and keeps making errors. This is an example of
meaning; imagery
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________.
chunking
The organization of information into meaningful units is called:
sensory memory
The type of memory where information is stored for the shortest period of time is
phonemic
In which level of processing is an emphasis placed on the sounds of words?
an organized general knowledge structure
A schema is
infantile amnesia
Mrs. Ramos claims to remember being sexually abused by her father when she was less than a year old. Memory experts are most likely to doubt the reliability of her memory due to their awareness of:
rosy retrospection
Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates:
encoding failure
The next-in-line effect best illustrates: