gametes are cells that ___ during ____ in organisms that sexually reproduce. what is their ploidy and how many sets of chromosomes?
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the testicular artery branches from the ___. the deferential artery supplies the ___ ___.-aorta -ductus deferensthe pampiform venous plexus carries ___ from the ___ to the ___ ___. it is a countercurrent ____ ____.-blood -testes -abdominal veins -heat exchangewhat is the tunica vaginalis?a serous sheath over the testes and epididymisthe intracellular testis ducts includes a ___ __ that separates the testes into lobes. within each lobe are the ____ ____ which lead into ___ __ and then into the ___ ___ and finally into the ____ ___.-tunica albuginea -seminiferous tubules -straight tubules -rete testis -mediastinum testisthe extracellular testis consists of ____ ___ that pass into the ___ of the ____, into the ___ and then into the ___. from there sperm moves into the ___ ___ and out to the rest of the reproductive organ.-efferent ductules -head -epididymis -body -tail -vas deferensthe tunica vaginalis covers the testes except for the ____ side. it has an outer ___ and inner _____ lamina layer and in between is a ___ of ____ ___ that allows the testis to ___.-posterior -parietal -visceral -cavity -serous fluid -movethe tunica albuginea is a thick ___ ___ tissue capsule covering the testis. what 2 layers does it consist of?-dense connective -tunica vasculosa -mediastinum testisthe tunica vasculosa is on the ___ surface of the tunica albuginea and contains ___ and ___ ___ tissue.-inner -vascular -loose connectivethe mediastinum testis is the ___ ____ portion of the tunica albuginea. it is where what structures enter or exit the testis?-thickened posterior -nerves, blood, lymph, and ductsthe connective tissue septa divides the testis into ___ and projects from the ___ ___.-lobules -tunica albugineathe connective tissue septa lobules consist of ___ ____ ____ and a ___ ___ ___ between the ____ ___.-4 seminiferous tubules -connective tissue stroma -seminiferous tubuleswhat are the interstitial cells of the testes?leydig cellsleydig cells are found in the ___ ___ ___ between the ___ ___. they are ____ producing and their shape is ___ and ____. the ___ pigment may be present in the cells, appearing as _____ granules. this pigment is also called the "______" pigment.-connective tissue stroma -seminiferous tubules -testosterone -large and polygonal -lipofuscin -yellow-brown -"wear and tear"leydig cells are _____philic due to the abundance of ____ which makes them ___ secreting cells.-eosino -SER -steroidwhat are characteristics of steroid secreting cells?-abundance of SER -mitochondria with tubulovesicular cristae -lipid dropletswhat can also be found in leydig cells that is unique to them?-reinke crystalsreinke crystals are ___ shaped ____ crystals that have an ____ function. they are between 3 and 20 micrometers thick.-rod -cytoplasmic -unknownthe seminiferous tubules produce ____ and they are highly _____. they have ___ epithelium that is ___ and ____. they contain what 2 cell types?-sperm -convoluted -unusual -complex -stratified -spermatogenic cells and sertoli cellswhat is another name for sertoli cells?sustenacular cellsthe seminiferous tubules are surrounded by a ___ ____ also called _____ tissue. this layer helps ____ the tubules and move ___ through them.-tunica propria -peritubular -squeeze -fluidthe tunica propria around the seminiferous tubules is about ____ layers thick with ___ cells.-3-5 -myoidwhat are myoid cells?-like smooth muscle cells -located on the basal lamina of the seminiferous tubule epithelium -they have large actin filaments and RER (for collagen synthesis) -they are responsible for rhythmic contractions of the seminiferous tubules for transport of fluidspermatogenesis begins at ___ around the age of ___ and continues _____ ____ ___. about ___ ___ sperm are produced per day per testis. spermatogenesis takes how long? where does it occur?-puberty -14 -throughout adult life -200 million -74 days -seminiferous tubulesspermatogenesis begins at the ___ cells in the periphery of the seminiferous tubules. it then progresses ___. what is spermiation?-germ -inwards -when mature spermatozoon/ spermatozoa are released into the seminiferous tubule lumenthe spermatogonial phase is when spermatogonial cells ___ in a process called ____. this is when they start ___ themselves and creating a population to become ____.-divide -mitosis -replacing -spermatocyteswhat cell types are in the spermatogonial phase? they are all attached to each other by a thin ____ ___ and remain this way until ___ ___. this enables ____ development of ___.-Type A dark spermatogonia -Type A pale spermatogonia -Type B spermatogonia -cytoplasmic bridge -spermatid maturation -synchronous -clonesTypa A dark spermatogonia cells have an ___ nucleus and have intensely ____ finely ____ chromatin-ovoid -basophilic -granularType A pale spermatogonia have an ___ nucleus and are ____ staining with finely ___ chromatin.-ovoid -lightly -granularType B spermatogonia have a ____ nucleus and the chromatin are ____-spherical -condensedonce spermatocytes are formed they enter the ____ phase where they undergo 2 ____ divisions: ____ and ____. this reduces the ___ number and ___ to produce ___ cells.-spermatocyte -meiotic -meiosis I and meiosis II -chromosome -DNA -haploidwhat 2 cell types are in the spermatocyte phase?primary and secondary spermatocytesprimary spermatocytes have a ___ and ___ nucleus and they are larger than the _____. these cells arise from ____ divisions of ____ ___ _____. these cells will undergo what reactions? at this point though, they have a ____ chromosomal number of ____ and have ___ the DNA (____).-large and round -spermatogonia -mitotic -type B spermatogonia -2 meiotic divisions -normal -2n -double -4dsecondary spermatocytes are ___ than primary spermatocytes and they form from ____ division of primary spermatocytes without the synthesis of new ____. they have a chromosome number of ___ and a DNA number of ___.-smaller -meiosis I -DNA -1n -2dsecondary spermatocytes will then undergo a ____ division to form ____. the next phase is called the ___ phase.-meiosis II -spermatids -spermatidthe spermatid phase will no longer undergo ____ and it is also called _____. this is the phase when extensive ___ ___ and ___ occurs to form ___ ___ also called ____.-divisions -spermiogenesis -cell remodeling -differentiation -mature sperm -spermatozoaspermatids appear with a ___ staining nucleus. they have a ___ number of DNA and chromosome number. what 4 phases do the spermatids undergo during spermiogenesis?-light -haploid (1n and 1d) -golgi phase, cap phase, acrosome phase, and maturation phasesertoli cells are ____ cells of the developing sperm. they are tall ____ cells. do they replicate after puberty? they rest on the ___ ___ and they contain irregular ____ that extends into the ___ of the seminiferous tubules. they have ___ and ___ functions.-nursing -columnar -no -basal lamina -cytoplasm -lumen -endocrine -exocrinewhat are the organelles in the sertoli cells?-extensive SER -well developed RER -numerous mitochondria -golgi apparatus -euchromatic nucleus which can vary in shape and locationwhat are the two sertoli cell junctional specializations?-sertoli-to-sertoli junctional complexes -sertoli-to-spermatid junctional specializationthe sertoli-to-sertoli junctional complex divides the seminiferous tubule epithelium into a ___ and ____ compartment. what are in each compartment?-basal and luminal -the basal compartment contains diploid cells such as the spermatogonia -the luminal compartment contains haploid cells such as the mature spermatocytes and spermatidsin addition to the physical barrier, the sertoli-to-sertoli junctional complex is also the site for the ___ ___ barrier. this is a ___ junction that isolates ___ cells from the ____ system. it makes sure that ____ ___ and ___ are excluded from the ___ ___ lumen. it also contains concentrates of ___ ___ ___.-blood-testis -tight -germ cells -immune -plasma proteins -antibodies -seminiferous tubule -androgen-binding proteins (ABP)because of the sertoli-to-sertoli junctional complex, the composition of the fluid in the ___ ___ is considerably different from the composition in the ___ ___ and ___ __. why is this important?-seminiferous tubules -blood plasma -testicular lymph -it separates the immune system of the adult male from the genetically different haploid germ cells, so that antigens specific to the sperm are prevented from reaching the system circulation.the sertoli-to-spermatid junction is ___ a ___ junction. it is a ____ or macula ____ junction between the early stage of _______ cells. what does this help do?-not -tight -desmosome -adherens -spermatogenic -helps move the spermatids from the lamina propria into the seminiferous tubule lumen.spermatozoa and spermatogenic cells are recognized as ___ by the immune system. failure to isolate these cells from the ___ can result in ___ ____ ____. this can cause _____.-foreign -blood -anti sperm antibodies (ASA) -infertilityantibodies found in semen can prevent ____ if they are ___ antibodies. hinder ____ with the ___ if they are ___ antibodies. and the antibodies can cause sperm to ____ or ___ together.-movement -tail -interactions -ovum -head -agglutinate -clumpthe blood-testis barrier can be damaged by what?-trauma such as a vasectomy, torsion, or impact -if sperm leak from a severed ductus deferensthe ____ test can be used in anti sperm antibodies and is clinically significant when ___% is positive.-immunobead -50the seminiferous tubule epithelium consists of ___ different cellular associations or stages. these stages do not have ___, they are just simply ___. other species (including primates), have _____ associations with the ___ of the tube. humans have ___ distinctions though. so in humans, at one circumferential spot of the seminiferous tubule, we can see ___ cells at ___ stages. whereas in other species, one spot would have cells at the ___ stage.-6 -names -distinct -cellular -length -irregular -different -different -samein histological slides, spermatogonia and sertoli cells are located on the ___ ___. the sertoli cells have a ___ ___ in the middle. spermatocytes are more in the ___ of the tubule and have ___ nuclei. towards the ___ of the tubule are the spermatids.-lamina propria -pink dot -middle -large -lumenthe mature spermatozoon is made of what 3 parts?head neck tailthe head is ___ and ___ in humans. in contains an ____ cap that is responsible for what?-flat -pointed -acrosome -the acrosome reaction when a sperm touches an egg. this prevents entry of any other sperm into the egg.what enzymes are used in the acrosome reaction?hyaluronidase neuraminidase acid phosphatase acrosin (trypsin like)the neck is the ___ piece and it contains a ___ and is the origin of ___ ___.-connecting -centriole -coarse fibersthe tail is also called the ___. it has what 3 pieces?-flagellum -middle, principal, and end piecethe middle piece of the tail has abundant ____ wrapped around ___ ___, and an ____ complex which is what?-mitochondria -coarse fibers -axonemal -9 microtubule proteins around a central pair of proteinsthe principal piece of the sperm tail is made of a ____ sheath, ___ ___ and also the ___ ___.-fibrous -coarse fibers -axonemal complexthe end piece of the sperm contains only the ___ ___.axonemal complexthe intratesticular ducts consist of what structures again?seminiferous tubules straight tubules rete testisthe straight tubules are the end of the ___ ___ and lined by only ____ cells. it has an abrupt transition of ____: ______ to ____. these will empty into the ___ ___ where epithelium becomes ____ ____.-seminiferous tubules -sertoli -epithelium lined by sertoli cells to cuboidal epithelium -rete testis -cuboidal epitheliumthe rete testis is part of the _____ and it has a series of _____ ____. it is highly ____ and contains ___ ____ or ___ ___ epithelium. the cells have simple apical ___ with short ____. it also is made of a _____ supporting material.-mediastinum -interconnecting channels -vascular -simple cuboidal -low columnar -cilium -microvilli -collagenous