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History Vocab 12
Terms in this set (34)
Refers to the presidential election of 1824 in which Henry Clay, the Speaker of the House, convinced the House of Representatives to elect Adams rather than Jackson.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
(1767-1848) Son of President John Adams and the secretary of state to James Monroe, he largely formulated the Monroe Doctrine. He was the sixth president of the United States and later became a representative in Congress.
An official public meeting of a party to choose candidates for office
Originally from Georgia, Crawford ran in the 1824 election representing the south. He was forced to drop out of the race due to a stroke.
A document stating the aims and principles of a political party
(1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man," pet banks, spoils system, specie circular, trail of tears, Henry Clay Flectural Process.
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
supporters of a strong central government who favored road building and supported the Bank of the United States to shape the nation's economy; many were farmers or merchants
Issued by Jackson - attempt to stop states from speculating land with money they printed that was not backed by anything. Provided that in payment for public lands, the government would accept only gold or silver
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank
PANIC OF 1837
A financial crisis in the United States that led to an economic depression
A system of public employment based on rewarding party loyalists and friends.
conservatives and popular with pro-Bank people and plantation owners. They mainly came from the National Republican Party, which was once largely Federalists. They took their name from the British political party that had opposed King George during the American Revolution. Their policies included support of industry, protective tariffs, and Clay's American System. They were generally upper class in origin. Included Clay and Webster
TARIFF OF 1828
Protective tariff on imports that benefited the industrial North while forcing Southerners to pay higher prices on manufactured goods; called the "Tariff of Abominations" by Southerners.
MARTIN VAN BUREN
(1837-1841) Advocated lower tariffs and free trade, and by doing so maintained support of the south for the Democratic party. He succeeded in setting up a system of bonds for the national debt.
United States freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged (1767-1822)
A bill passed by Van Buren in 1837, that divorced the government from banking altogether, and established an independent treasury, so the governemtn could lock its money in vaults in several of the larger cities.
SOUTH CAROLINA EXPOSITION
written by John C. Calhoun denouncing the 1828 Tariff as unconstitutional and that the states should declare it null and void
INDEPENDENT TREASURY BILL
Construction of government owned vaults where federal revenues could be stored until needed. All payments to the government were to be made in hard cash.
JOHN C. CALHOUN
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
American who settled in Texas, one of the leaders for Texan independence from Mexico
TARIFF OF 1832
This import tax was meant to replace the earlier "Tariff of Abominations", but it was widely disliked by southern merchants. South Carolina event talked about having the right to ignore Federal law, starting what would become known as the "Nullification Crisis."
Famous frontiersman, left Tennessee to help Texas fight Mexico for independence. Died at the Alamo.
TARIFF OF 1833
Tariff that lowered tariffs of 1828 and 1832 by much more in response to SC's Ordinance of nullification
Commander of the Texas army at the battle of San Jacinto; later elected president of the Republic of Texas
gave the president power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose
Mexican general who tried to crush the Texas revolt and who lost battles to Winfield Scott and Zachary Taylor in the Mexican War (1795-1876)
INDIAN REMOVAL ACT
(1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
A Spanish mission converted into a fort, it was besieged by Mexican troops in 1836. The Texas garrison held out for thirteen days, but in the final battle, all of the Texans were killed by the larger Mexican force.
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS
A government agency created in the 1800s to oversee federal policy toward Native Americans
WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON
(1841), was an American military leader, politician, the ninth President of the United States, and the first President to die in office. His death created a brief Constitutional crisis, but ultimately resolved many questions about presidential succession left unanswered by the Constitution until passage of the 25th Amendment. Led US forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
(1841-1845) His opinions on all the important issues had been forcefully stated, and he had only been chosen to balance the Whig ticket with no expectation he would ever have power. He was in favor of state's rights, and a strict interpretation of the constitution, he opposed protective tariffs, a national bank and internal improvements at national expense.
TRAIL OF TEARS
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people
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