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HS1401 - MCQ's - Worded Answer Questions
Terms in this set (74)
To change a program or service
Explain Australia's GDP?
Australia's is one of the only countries that saw an increase during the GFC which means the economy is Australia is ill-effected by international problems.
Explain the history and workings of Australia's Government?
in 1901 Australia became federated. Australia is part of the commonwealth and works under the British Westminster system of government and law.
How are Human Rights upheld?
How did the Menzies Government (Liberal) amend national health care?
in 1949 the new government opted to offer free health care to those that couldn't afford it and the rest would have to have private health insurance.
How do we measure socio-economic status?
Occupation, income/wealth, class, postcode.
How is the PBS cost contained?
-Prices paid for listed drugs
-Number of dispensed prescriptions
-Safety net threshold levels
-The number and cost of newly listed drugs
Is Tobacco use on the decline? Which population uses it the most?
Yes, females smoke most.
List different types of evaluation?
List National registration and accreditation schemes?
-Indigenous Health Practitioners
-Chinese Medicine Practitioners
List points of Australia's National Medicine Policy?
-Timely access to medicines needed by Australians
-Affordable to the community
-Medicines must meet appropriate standards of quality safety and efficacy
-Quality use of medicines
Main levels of health analysis?
Societal and Individual
Procedure in listing new drugs on PBS?
1 - Government negotiates acceptable price
2 - Company must provide evidence of cost-effectiveness
3 - Entails benefits of drug
Finding out how well a program or service had worked
Traditional determinants of health?
What are Human Rights?
What are infectious agents?
What are some benefits of private health insurance?
-Pays for hospital treatment
-Some non-admitted procedures
-Provides faster access
-Premiums continue to increase
-Extra services add extra cost
What are some points for exploring demography?
-Infrastructure and planning
-Allocation of tax dollars
What are the benefits of Medicare?
-Provides high quality healthcare which is accessible to Australians.
-Often provided free of charge at the point of care (bulk billed)
-Financed largely by general tax and based on a person's taxable income
What are the current top drugs by cost to government?
Humira - Arthritis
Crestor - Hypercholesterol
Eylea - Macular degeneration
Lucentis - Age related Macular degeneration
Seretide - Asthma
Nexium - GORD relief
Enbrel - Arthritis
Mabthera - Hodkin's Lymphoma
Lantus Insulin - Type 1 and 2 Diabetes
Gilenya - Treatment of MS
What are the main reasons for the large increase in PBS expenditure?
-Increase use of Pharmaceuticals
-High price number of new drugs being listed
What are the major causes of death in Australia?
CHD, Heart Attack, Lung Cancer, Cerebrovascular Disease, COPD and Prostate Cancer
What are the top long term health conditions in Australia?
-Mental and behavioural conditions
What can the patient/client do if they reach the PBS Safety Net Threshold?
Ask the pharmacist for a card that will allow them to free pharmaceuticals.
What defines Medicare?
What diseases do tics carry?
Lyme Disease and anaplasmosis
What does health mean?
The state of physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
What does Medicare cover?
-Consultation fees for doctors
-Test including x-ray and pathology
-Most surgical and therapeutic procedures
-Cleft Lip and Palate Scheme
-Specified terms under the Chronic Disease Scheme
What does the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme do?
Manages the price of medication.
What happened to Medibank in 1976?
The Fraser Government (Liberal/National) dismantled Medibank and introduced Medibank Mark II and included a 2.5% levy on income with the option of taking out private health insurance to avoid paying the levy.
What happened to the PBS in 1950?
Provided all residents to access of 139 life-saving drugs
What have been some changes in service settings?
-Same day facilities
-Delivery of services at home
-Increased capacity and capability of health care services
-Development of multipurpose ambulatory centres
-Establishment of virtual hospitals
What is a basic evaluation?
-What should be done differently?
What is an example of "closer to home"?
OT's spend 9.25 hrs a week traveling to and from clients. Changing to Skype or other communications. This could equate to 25% more clients being seen per week.
What is an F1 category medicine?
Medicines with only a single brand listed because of a patent
What is an F2 category medicine?
Medicines with multiple brands
What is a system?
Any collection of two or more interacting parts
What is a Zoonotic Disease?
A zoonotic disease is a disease that can be spread between animals and humans. Zoonotic diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi.
What is DALY?
Disability Adjusted Life Years - Years of life lost because of disability
What is demography?
The scientific study of human populations
What is efficiency?
Achieving results with cost effective use of resources
What is formative evaluation?
Medicare is for people who are in the lower end of SES.
What is MERS?
Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus
What is Private Health Care? Who uses it?
People that earn too much money can still be a part of Medicare but they must pay a service levy
What is social structure/class?
Created by the distribution of wealth, power, political influence and status.
What is sociology?
The study of human interactions in groups and how they relate to social structures.
What is systems thinking?
A way of understanding reality the emphasises the relationship among the parts of the system rather than just the parts themselves
What is the big three?
What is the current PBS Safety Net Threshold?
What is the greatest contribution to health of the nation?
What is the health workforce?
Anyone working in the health sector
What is the National Prescribing Service?
Provides information and educational programs about appropriate use of medicines
What is the QUM (Quality use of medicines)?
Fourth arm of the National Medicines Policy. Aims to achieve more rational use of medicines and less wasteful use of medicines
What is the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA)?
Principal responsibility fro assuring quality, safety, and efficacy of all products that make therapeutic claims
What is, The Wound Man? (1530)
An illustration of injuries that doctors claimed they could fix.
What occurs when people have have low SES backgrounds?
-Suffer from more disease/injury
-Have more workplace injuries and accidents
-More likely to substance abuse
-More likely to respond to health promotion messages
Whats are the 3Ps?
What was included on the Duckett and Wilcox (2015) framework?
Which countries have health care agreements with Australia?
NZ, Ireland, UK, Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Italy, Malta, Belgium and Slovenia
Which Government changed Medibank to Medicare?
Hawke Government (Labor)
Which Government introduced the PBS
Chifley Government (Labor)
Which schemes did the Health Insurance Commission establish?
-Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme
Which sector employs the most people in Cairns and Townsville?
The health and community sectors
Who introduced Medibank?
Whitlam Government (Labor)
Who introduced the Pharmaceutical Benefits Act?
Labor Government (Curtin)
Who is the Governor General
Sir Peter Cosgrove
Who is the Head of State in Australia?
The Governor General
Who pays for Medicare
Why does Cuba have good health care?
-High ratio of GP's
-Excellent medical schools
-Policies on whole population
-Low wealth disparity
-Well-resourced public health
-Resistance to Globalisation
-Subservience of individual human rights
Why was the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme abandoned?
Outbreak of WWII
Why was the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme established?
To supply medicine to veterans of WWI
Why would a health professional take a sociological approach?
-Population health trends and patterns
-Social issues which are treated as medical issues (obesity, substance abuse, anxiety, sexuality, sleep)
Why would you perform a caesarean?
-The baby's position is compromised
-You have already had one prior
-More than one baby
-You are suffering from a chronic illness
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Choose the correct one of the two verb forms in parentheses in each of the following sentences. EXAMPLE: Bantu languages, which are (*spoke, spoken*) by many Africans, have an interesting history. spoken The wide acoustic range of drums like the Yorubas' dundun ( *gived, gave*) quick and easy access to a complex language.
In each sentence, underline the pronoun or pronouns in parentheses that agree in number and gender with the antecedent. In the evening the chickens return to *(its, their)* roost.
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