Western Civ Test #7
Nov. 13 - Nov. 29
Terms in this set (128)
What did Charlemagne think he could "force" people to believe?
He thought he could force people into believing in Jesus and being Christians.
What happened on Christmas Eve in the year 800?
The pope crowned Charlemagne as the new Roman emperor in St. Peter's church in Rome, because he believed Charlemagne had been chosen by God to preserve the peace.
What was the question at the heart of the Investiture Controversy? Who were the key figures in the controversy?
The question was whether the emperor or the pope had the right to decide which priests should become bishops of which lands, as the pope was the lord of all priests and the emperor was the lord of all lands. The appointments were both religious and related to the land.
What is Christendom?
the idea of a Christian nation
What is central in a Catholic church?
communion is crucial and the focal point of the church service
What power did the pope have?
the pope uses spiritual power for political purposes; the emperor surrendered to him in the Investiture controversy; church and state are really mixed
Why is Latin important in medieval culture?
it is associated with the order and stability of Rome
Who was Cicero?
a leading Roman philosopher
Why does Einhard describe Charlemagne physically?
to link him to the Roman emperors, which points to the importance of Rome
-historical writings are more interested in displaying ideas and general truths than facts and historical details
-this description of Charlemagne may not be accurate, but that's not the point
Why did Charlemagne cherish the church of St. Peter at Rome?
Rome has status and is the most important
What is the significance of the inscription on Charlemagne's grave?
it follows the Roman model
How is Charlemagne referred to?
-as Emperor Augustus
-as the ruler of the world
-declared to be emperor and ruler of the Roman church
What causes mass conversion?
mass conquest; when a tribal leader surrenders, the whole tribe is baptized as Christians, like in the war between the Franks and Saxons; military and church are mixed together
What is the Carolingian Renaissance?
Charlemagne's rebirth of learning
What languages did Charlemagne study?
Latin and Greek
What did Charlemagne read?
-St. Augustine's "City of God"
-had people read to him while he ate
Where was Charlemagne educated?
received education at a monastery, which is where learning was preserved; "schools"=churches; learning lessens, but the learning that is preserved is preserved in the monasteries
What did Charlemagne want for his children's education?
wants his sons and daughters to be educated and then learn practical arts
How did Charlemagne excell mankind?
he excelled "all mankind" in knowledge of both sacred and profane literature, which is all preserved in monasteries
How did Charlemagne view Scripture?
Charlemagne had great intellect and constantly applied it to Scripture
What are the main themes?
-enduring status of Rome
-idea of mass conversion
-decline of education, but preservation in monasteries
-Charlemagne's presence in Carolingian Renaissance
What was Charlemagne's Empire?
Charlemagne's Empire, 814; either directly or indirectly, Charlemagne ruled a vast empire
How was Charlemagne depicted?
-coin of Charlemagne depicts him as looking Roman
-depiction of Charlemagne in art is not accurate, but depicts his stature
-holding cross and sword
-shown with books and monks
How did Napoleon build his empire?
builds his French empire with Charlemagne in mind, and Charlemagne built his with Rome in mind
How is Jesus depicted?
with halo, and writing
Faeder ure pu pe eart on heofonum
Father our thou thee art in heaven
Si pin nama gehalgod
may thine name be hallowed
to becume pin rice
to become thine kingdom
gewurpe din willa
work thine will
on eordan swa swa on heofonum
on earth as it is in heaven
urne gedaeghwamlican hlaf syle us todaeg
our daily loaf give us today
and forgyf us ure gyltas
and forgive us our guilts
swa swa we forgyfad urum gyltendum
even as we forgive those who are guilty
and ne gelaed pu us on costnunge
and don't lead us into temptation
ac alys us of yfele
and liberate us of evil
What people group invaded England in the year 1066?
What language did they speak?
What are the German legacies?
holidays; days of the week
What are some Christmas symbols?
trees, lights, snowmen, church
What did the Romans celebrate on December 25th?
the winter solstice (longest night of the year)
When is our winter solstice?
Why did they celebrate it?
it means spring is coming; the days will get longer, which is a big deal because they relied on farming for food
How did the Roman winter solstice holiday turn into Christmas?
Dec. 25th was a major event in Roman culture; it was significant before Rome became Christian; Rome kept their nice holiday of Christmas and then later decided to change it to be a celebration of Jesus
Where did the Christmas tree originate?
Germans and Scandinavians
Why did the Germans and Scandinavians place evergreen trees inside their homes?
to show their hope for the coming of spring
Where did mistletoe originate?
British Druids used mistletoe and holly as symbols of eternal life
What are the origins of Santa Claus?
vague; Santa Claus was seen as a low-class, mischievous figure at first; our Santa Claus was invented by Coca-Cola as a marketing program; Santa Claus at the manger=strange
When did our Christmas come into being?
the 20th century
What are some Easter symbols?
resurrection, flowers, rabbits, candy
Where did Easter originate?
Why did the Germans value spring?
Germans valued spring and its life and its light; flowers bloom in spring; spring is a time of fertility in nature; fruit is ripening
Why did the Germans start the celebration of Easter in the spring?
spring=fertility=resurrection; of course then spring is the best time to celebrate Jesus' resurrection! and let's throw in symbols of fertility! fertility symbols=eggs, rabbits, flowers, etc.; marketers threw in teh candy
origin of Sunday
day of the sun god (sol)
origin of Monday
day of the moon god
origin of Tuesday
day of the old Norse god Tyr/Tiu
origin of Wednesday
day of the god Woden
origin of Thursday
day of the god Thor
origin of Friday
day of the old Norse god Frigg
origin of Saturday
day of the Saturn god
What are some Norse words in English?
anger, bait, bleak, to egg on, scalp, scare, skill, skim, sky
What are some present-day Icelandic words in English?
cake, die, drag, freckle, slaughter
What are some Norwegian words in English?
club, knife, snare, Thursday (Torsdag)
What is the viking stereotype?
club, beer, opera, hat with horns, pillagers
Where did the vikings come from?
present-day Norway, Sweden
According to Charlemagne, how did people see the vikings?
as pirates and raiders; as terrible and untrustworthy
What were the viking raids like?
viking raids were EXTENSIVE, more extensive than the Romans!
they traveled these long distances in little boats
Why did Vikings go on these raids?
they're not building an empire...they just wanted to? for the sake of exploring, or because of their culture? we don't really know why! they settled in many places without making an empire
Why were the Vikings called "Norse men"?
How did Latin get into English?
when Normans invaded and settled in England in 1066, they spoke French; English language became influenced by French; Latin language got into English indirectly by French
What did the languages of the Anglos and of the Saxons become?
What are some translations of the word "day"?
What languages comprise English?
English is Germanic, but with LOTS of Latin and Greek
In what ways, and at what times, was Islam hostile to non-Muslim learning and open to non-Muslim learning?
Muhammad representative, Omar, found all the scrolls in the Alexandria library by Greek poets, writers, and philosophers unnecessary if they were contained in the Koran and harmful if they were not contained in the Koran. The Arabs learned from their conquered peoples, however, about new trades and culture. They learned from the Persians and the Greeks, who introduced them to significant literature like Aristotle.
From the European perspective, what was the central purpose of the Crusades?
The purpose of the Crusades was to liberate the land where Christ's cross had once stood.
What did Europeans rediscover in the world of Islam?
The Christians rediscovered Arab culture, including architecture and education. They discovered classic literature like Aristotle, which was translated and spread around. They brought the culture back to Europe and by it were transformed from barbaric warriors into knights.
What does Gombrich say about the Jews?
The Jews were hated and targeted by Europeans, especially when they were more pious. They were the only tribe from antiquity left in Europe.
In what ways were the Jews of medieval Europe different?
The Jews of medieval Europe had faced persecution for many years and weren't allowed to practice any craft except trade, but they still earned lots of money, making them more hated.
What happened to our view of Islam as a result of 9/11?
for the first time we recognized the Muslims, and now we question whether Muslims are friends or foes
What happened as a result of the Norman invasion of England in 1066?
-this is when England was invaded for the last time
-conquest is initially unpleasant, but the conquerers brought order, stability, and peace
-Latin got into English as a result of this invasion
-after Norman invasion, French becomes the language of England (11th-14th centuries)
-this invasion affected the language we speak by bringing all the Latin into English
What is the Bayeux Tapestry?
retelling of Norman invasion into England; written in simple Latin
What does Gombrich say about the spread of Islam?
-Islam spread through areas associated with Christianity
-Islam grew rapidly
-library of classic literature was lost in war
-the numbers we use are from Arabic
-westerns gained more intellect and culture from Islam than Arabs do from westerners
What does Charlemagne say about the spread of Islam?
19-Charlemagne overthrew the Muslims (Saracens) who were attempting to occupy Gaul; he forced them to return to Spain to keep them out of France (impressive that Islam spread from Persia to France!)
29-Charlemagne has friendly relations with Persian leaders
30-Charlemagne wants Christians to have jurisdiction over holy land that is now in Muslim territory
-Eastern diplomats sent gifts to Charlemagne; products and animals the west had never seen (east is wealthy!)
31-Charlemagne prevented Islam (Moore) piracy
92-97-Muslims also viewed Rome as important
93-Eastern diplomats admired Charlemagne more than all the wealth of the east (and that wealth is impressive)
94-Charlemagne got an elephant, monkeys, oils, spices
96-Christians want the holy land
What are the main points about Western civilization (Charlemagne) and Islam (the Persian King)?
-conflict (Charlemagne pushes back Muslims)
-trading of goods (Eastern riches-->west; little of Western goods go to east)
What are some Arabic words in English?
algebra (many of our al- words come from Arabic)
Why did English adopt many of these words?
there was no other English word to say the same thing, which implies that many of these new words came with new goods
What does this list of words tell us about the kinds of exotic things the Arabs brought into western culture?
-math and science words (Islam is ahead in these areas)
How does Gombrich describe Arabia?
strange desert land with few warlike habitats
How does Gombrich describe the Arabs?
fought each other; simple faith; worshipped stars and made pilgrimages to the Shrine of Kaaba in Mecca
Who was Muhammad?
from Mecca, orphaned young, married his rich employer; "Trustworthy One," talked to Arabs, Christians, and Jews
How did Muhammad become a prophet?
had a vision where an angel commanded him to read
-had another vision 3 years later and decided God was calling him to be a prophet
Who was the Kaaba?
Kaaba saw Muhammad as an enemy, but some Jewish Arabs in Mecca listened to Muhammad, which angered the Kaaba
What happened in 622?
Emigration=Muhammad fled his assassins (the Kaaba)
Where did Muhammad flee?
to Medina; Muhammad told the people he was a prophet; taught them to fear God and kill anyone who didn't
What does "Islam" mean?
submission to the will of God
Why did the people of Medina listen to Muhammad?
they wanted the promised paradise
What happened between Medina and Mecca?
Medina attacked Mecca, Mecca advanced on Media, Muhammad led a pilgrimage to Mecca and conquered the whole town
How did people view Muhammad now?
What was the Islam holy book?
What happened when Muhammad died?
his representatives, Abu Bakr and Omar, led conquests of Palestine, Persia, Egypt, Alexandria; those who didn't convert were killed; important literature in Alexandria was lost in war
What did the Arabs do then?
attacked from Perisa to India, from Egypt to North Africa and Spain; Arabs=not united
Who defeated the Arabs?
Charles Martel, leader of the Franks, in 732; they would have conquered France and Germany
What cultures did the Arabs adopt?
Arabs learned about Eastern splendor from Persians; Arabs learned about literature (like Aristotle) from Greeks, Aristotle taught them about nature
What legacies did the Arabs leave?
names of sciences
numbers that contain place value (which they got from Indians)
What cultures did the Arab empire unite?
Persians, Greeks, Indians, and Chinese
Where did chivalry originate?
Who were knights?
men who rode horses into battle, men who had land bestowed on them by the king, or stewards who had land bestowed on them by a nobleman
When were knights around?
knights began after the year 1000 during time of emperor Henry IV, and lasted for several centuries, mostly in France
Where did knights live?
princes and nobles built fortresses where the knights lived; castle life was not comfortable
What were keeps?
large towers in the middle of the castles where knights could hide out when enemies invaded their fortresses
What were dungeons?
where knights threw their prisoners
What were serfs?
under the command of the knights and forced to build the castles
What were the ranks a boy went through before becoming a knight?
page=knight's son, age 7, served ladies
squire=age 14, accompanied knight
knight=age 21, after ceremony of dubbing by his lord
What structure was there to being a knight?
knight=member of order
How did knights treat women?
fought to win women's hearts and made it their duty to protect them
What were tournaments?
games of chivalry in peacetime
What did knights write poetry about?
women they loved, and knights of teh past
How were songs carried from castle to castle?
by singing minstrels
What was a knight's first duty?
fight for God and for Christendom
Where was Jesus' tomb?
in Jerusalem (Palestine)=hands of Arab unbelievers
Who was Godfrey Bouillon?
French knight who led an army of crusaders in 1096 to liberate Jerusalem, the holy city
What did the crusaders do?
massacred the Muslims in Jerusalem; founded the Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, but it was always under attack from Arab warriors
What did Christians discover after the crusades?
Arab culture, including buildings and learning and writings of Aristotle, and brought it all back to Europe
What were the characteristics of a chivalrous knight?
A chivalrous knight served God by protecting the weak, being just and fair, and obeying his liegelord. He fought to protect and impress the lady he loved and wrote her poetry. He tested his skill in tournaments and also wrote poems about the knights in the past.
What is the origin of the word "chivalry"?
The word "chivalry" comes from the French word "chevalier" meaning horsemen. Originally, chivalry defined any knight who rode a horse into battle.
How does Gombrich describe the economy of medieval Europe?
Most of the people in Germany lived without needing money because they grew their food, got it from a serf, or traded for what they needed. But, it was too complicated for people who lived in the few towns to barter, so they exchanged metal. The people of Italy had used money since Roman times.
What basic points does he make about the Magna Carta?
The Magna Carta is the Great Charter from 1215 when Pope Innocent III swore not to oppose the will of the people of England. King John put his seal on the document. The Pope granted his barons many rights that English citizens still hold.
How does Gombrich summarize the actions and interests of Frederick II?
Frederick II wanted to be king of the Germans, so he travelled to Constance and was aided by the burghers there to hold off his enemy Otto. He won over the German princes and was a mighty ruler of Germany and Italy. He wanted to rule the world, and he had knowledge from Innocent III, the Germans, and the Arabs. He had grown up in Sicily. He liked learning about religions. He made a peaceful agreement with the sultan in Jerusalem to allow the Christians to travel to the Holy Land peacefully. He then crowned himself king of Jerusalem. He paid his officials in money rather than land. He ruled justly and with severity.