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Terms in this set (62)
In what ways does the bebop style differ from the Swing that preceded it?
Bebop was music that is isolated, non-danceable, played by small combos to a small audience in a virtuosic style that was difficult to grasp
Which Harlem club was a center of bebop creativity?
In what ways did jam sessions weed out inexperienced players?
By playing tunes at ridiculously fast tempos in unfamiliar keys. Standards like "I Got Rhythm" were reharmonized with difficult chord substitutions.
Why did bandleaders have difficulty keeping Charlie Parker in their bands?
In NY, Parker had a readily available drug supply and jam sessions to play. He built a network of musicians that he played with.
Dizzy Gillespie's skill on which instrument enabled him to take full advantage of the harmonic possibilities of bebop?
A 2-‐‐mile stretch of what street in New York was home to over a dozen jazz clubs from the 1930s-1950s?
A tune that is a new melody to a familiar set of changes is called what? What is one benefit to this practice?
Contrafact, it allowed musicians to create new pieces for performance and recording on which they could immediately improvise.
What types of adaptations did each rhythm section player make to facilitate bebop style?
Piano - Dropped stride patterns in favor of Comping
Guitar - Either stayed away from bebop or switched to electric guitar and played more syncopated rhythms or solos
Bass - Nothing really changed, they just became more virtuosic
What ensemble instrumentation still favored today was pioneered by pianist Bud Powell?
Piano Trio (Piano, Bass, Drums)
What arranger's apartment on 55th Street in New York became an important meeting place for progressive musicians in the 1950s?
What geographic term is alternately used to identify the white musicians that innovated the style known as Cool Jazz?
West Coast Jazz
Although they weren't released as a unified album until 1954, when were the Birth of the Cool sessions recorded? Who was the primary soloist?
1949 + 1950, Miles Davis
The absence of what instrument serves to identify the Gerry Mulligan Quartet and allows for sustained backgrounds and contrapuntal interplay between the front line players?
What pianist/composer/bandleader led a quartet including vibes for over 40 years and strived to combine baroque polyphony such as fugues with a bluesy feeling?
What pianist known for experimenting with odd time signatures had a partnership with saxophonist Paul Desmond, studied with composer Darius Milhaud, and appeared on the cover of Time Magazine?
The advent of what audio technology enabled musicians to explore extended live recordings, longer compositions, lengthy improvisations, & concept albums? What year did this take place?
n 1948, Columbia introduced 12-inch microgroove LP recordings that had about 20 minutes per side of music and were made of unbreakable vinyl. RCA Victor introduced the 45-rpm vinyl single-play recording the same year.
What group led primarily by drummer Art Blakey served as a proving ground for several generations of modern, young jazz musicians?
The Jazz Messengers
What pianist of Cape Verdean heritage incorporated gospel, R&B, folk music, and bop in compositions such as "Song for My Father?"
What Indianapolis guitarist was known for playing single-note lines with his thumb, playing lines in octaves, and playing lines supported by full chords?
Approximately how many tunes did pianist Thelonious Monk compose? What was his most important and widely recorded early composition?
70 Tunes, Round Midnight
What types of idiosyncratic behaviors did Monk exhibit during his performances?
Onstage dancing, frequent all-nighters, and obsessive concentration on a few compositions
What bassist/composer/activist was known for working collaboratively with a group of musicians called the Jazz Workshop? What were his key musical influences?
While he composed original works, Gil Evans was known primarily as what? What style of jazz did he embrace later in his career?
An Arranger, Fusion
What pianist/composer/arranger spent a lifetime dedicated to developing a theoretical approach to jazz based on the Lydian scale? What was the title of his book?
George Russell, George Russell's Lydian Chromatic Concept of TOnal Organization, Volume One: The Art and Science of Tonal Gravity
Which pianist did George Russell discover, compose a piece for, and introduce to Miles Davis?
Miles Davis is considered the greatest jazz innovator in post-WWII jazz due to what personal trait? Name three stylistic innovations with a date and corresponding recording.
1949-1950: The "Birth of the Cool" sessions helped focus a younger generation's search for something beyond bop and started the cool jazz movement.
1954: "Walkin'" started the hard bop movement.
1969: Bitches Brew made fusion mainstream and shifted the music's focus from melody to rhythm and timbre.
Davis was hired at age 19 to play in what Bebop innovator's quintet?
What style of jazz features improvisation based on scales rather than chords?
What three collaborations did Miles Davis record with Gill Evans starting in 1957?
Miles Ahead, Porgy and Bess, Sketches of Spain
Bill Evans was known for his progressive approach to combining notes on the piano known as what?
What term is used to describe Coltrane's desire to play every note of every chord?
Sheets of Sound
Coltrane underwent what sort of life change that led to his singular devotion to music?
He claimed to have undergone a profound religious experience
Be familiar with the players in Miles Davis' first and second quintets.
First Quintet: Sonny Rollins (Tenor), Red Garland (Piano), Paul Chambers (Bass), Philly Joe Jones (Drums)
Second Quintet: Wayne Shorter (Tenor), Herbie Hancock (Piano), Ron Carter (Bass), Tony Williams (Drums)
Be familiar with the players in Coltrane's classic quartet.
McCoy Tyner (Piano), Jimmy Garrison (Bass), Elvin Jones (Drums)
Which bandleader known as the "King of the Jukebox" is most closely associated with "jump" music, which grew into rhythm and blues?
What black singer who would go on to be a pioneering Soul musician, had roots in R&B, jazz, and gospel music?
What three instruments are most closely associated with Soul Jazz?
Organ, Drums, Guitar
What pop/jazz singer was the first African American to be offered his own television program? What caused him to suspend production?
Nat King Cole
What white singer who went on to have successful careers in music and film got his start with the big bands of Harry James and Tommy Dorsey? What sets his vocal style apart from other singers of his time?
Sarah Vaughan's style of singing pop tunes is considered instrumentally-based due to what characteristics?
She had a range exceeding four octaves and precise intonation, a feeling for the blues from her gospel roots, and an excellent sense of swing
Which U.S. bebop musician was crucial in bringing the sounds of Afro-Cuban jazz to a larger audience?
What political situation contributed to America's late-1950s shift in focus from the music of Cuba to the music of Brazil?
The 1959 Cuban Revolution
Bossa nova emerged in the 1950s as a new twist on which traditional Latin American dance tradition? What Brazilian performer/songwriter is the most celebrated in this style?
The Samba, Antonio Carlos Jobim
What 1963 album was the most commercially successful fusion of jazz and bossa nova style?
What is the original context of the term "avant-garde?" In what way is this term applied to a variety of art including music?
Originated in the French military to denote troops sent ahead of the regular army to scout unknown territory. The word was adapted to describe innovative composers, writers, painters, and other modernist artists whose work was so pioneering that it pushed the boundaries of contemporary thought.
Be familiar with alternate terms for avant-garde jazz.
Anti-jazz, Free jazz, Black Music, New Music, The New Thing, Revolutionary Music, Fire Music, Jazz Advance
Ornette Coleman's 1959 residency at what New York club established him as a major player in avant-garde jazz and one of the most divisive figures of the era?
The Five Spot
Ornette Coleman issued what groundbreaking avant-garde album in 1959?
The Shape of Jazz to Come
What term did Cecil Taylor apply to the modules or sections that made up his compositions, which his band could work through for varying amounts of time?What type of notation did he use?
Unit Structures, Graphic notation
What major jazz figure with established bebop credentials, served as a link between those who criticized and supported the avant-garde movement? What album recorded near the end of his life best represents his avant-garde output?
Name two reasons that avant-garde jazz failed to find a significant audience despite its emotional expressivity.
Audiences reared on swing and post-swing found it unappealing. Rock was attracting people who would have otherwise been jazz fans.
Name two artists' collectives that fostered the musical endeavors of black Midwestern jazz musicians.
The Black Artists Group, The Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians
The musical style most commonly referred to as Fusion represents the combination of elements from jazz and what other genre?
In what way did producer Teo Macero impact the final outcome of Miles Davis' Fusion albums In a Silent Way and Bitches Brew?
Macero was given a free hand to edit and recombine the hours of recording made in the studio
The most successful Fusion bands were formed by alumni of what musical innovator's bands? Who were the leaders of the groups Mahavishnu Orchestra, Return to Forever, Weather Report, and Headhunters?
Miles Davis. John McLaughlin, Chick Corea, Wayne Shorter, Herbie Hancock
The Mahavishnu Orchestra's sound is characterized by driving rhythms, electric guitar, distortion, and the complex meters drawn from what non-western music?
The sound of Return to Forever is characterized by the combination of synthesizers and what Latin American style?
What innovative electric bass player helped distinguish the sound of Weather Report with his fretless instrument and blinding virtuosity?
The Headhunters membership, aside from its leader, was made up of players in what genre?
Herbie Hancock has had parallel careers with what styles?
Pop and Jazz
What guitarist born in 1954 represents the generation of musicians who grew up influenced equally by rock and jazz?
What pianist who has worked with the best in jazz , rock, and hip-hop is a highly out-spoken representative of modernizing jazz by incorporating popular forms such as hip-hop?
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