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PSY3500 Exam 2
Terms in this set (32)
Measure of behavior of a participant in a study that reflects the effects of the independent variable. The variable that is thought to be the effect (Also referred to as y).
Conditions manipulated by the experimenter to determine its effect. The variable that is thought to be the cause (Also referred to as x).
Such as intelligence, self-esteem, and depression are variables that are not directly observable because they represent behavioral tendencies or complex patterns of behavior and internal processes. An important goal of scientific research is to conceptually define ________________ in ways that accurately describe them.
A definition of a variable in terms of precisely how it is to be measured.
Characteristics owned or possessed by the participants that describe the subject. Examples include: age, gender, SES, IQ, and Alcoholism diagnosis.
Is anything that varies in the context of a study other than the independent and dependent variables. In an experiment on the effect of expressive writing on health, for example, extraneous variables would include participant variables (individual differences) such as their writing ability, their diet, and their shoe size. They would also include situation or task variables such as the time of day when participants write, whether they write by hand or on a computer, and the weather.
Just another name for the dependent variable
Just another name for the independent variable.
Is used for categorical variables and involves assigning scores that are category labels. No hierarchy or rank ordering is present; No quantitative (amount) information is present. (Ex. 1= Female, 2= Male)
Involves assigning scores so that they represent the rank order of the individuals. Ranks communicate not only whether any two individuals are the same or different in terms of the variable being measured but also whether one individual is higher or lower on that variable. (Ex. Rank members of a classroom by height. Percentile scores are also ordered on this scale.)
Involves assigning scores so that they represent the precise magnitude of the difference between individuals, but a score of zero does not actually represent the complete absence of the characteristic. Also has equal intervals. (Ex. the measurement of heat using the Celsius or Fahrenheit scale)
Involves assigning scores in such a way that there is a true zero point that represents the complete absence of the quantity. In other words, this scale has all three properties: Magnitude, equal intervals, and absolute zero. (Ex. The speed of travel- 0 mph is the point where there is no speed at all.)
o How smooth or jerky is golf swing?
[designing jet fighter's ergonomics (human factors psych)
o In what situations do binge eating episodes typically occur?
Also called Random Error. Changes in the value of the DV not associated with the IV.
• Is the extent to which a measurement method appears "on its face" to measure the construct of interest. In other words, face validity is the extent to which the test looks valid to a layperson.
• Test encompasses all aspects of construct recognized by experts in a field. In other words, it boils down to whether a test "looks valid" to an expert.
Measures the idea it's supposed to, and nothing else.
• Test correlates highly with other tests of the same idea or produces same test results, diagnosis, etc.
• Tests that constructs that should have no relationship do, in fact, not have any relationship.
• Each part of a test measures the same idea
o Items in a measurement procedure correlate with one another
The ability to claim that a cause-effect relationship exists between the independent and dependent variables because all confounding variables have been controlled for in the experiment.
Do the results of my study apply to broader populations or situations, or circumstances?
Things that affect an experiment because they are correlated (associated with both the independent and dependent variables).
In the simplest sense, it means that the study was conducted well i.e., has high internal validity, and that the results were probably not due to chance.
Getting older during course of a study (pre to post testing)
Effects of repeated testing
Learning the test
This is the general idea that in many trials of measuring peoples' behavior, subjects who perform in extreme ways tend to move toward the group average if they are assessed again in the future.
Threats to internal validity
Maturation, Effects of repeated testing, and regression effect.
It is the independent variable
Each participant is tested under all conditions
Each participant is tested under one condition
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