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Unit 4 - The Young Republic

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Whiskey Rebellion
a protest caused by tax on liquor; it tested the will of the government, Washington's quick response showed the government's strength and mercy
National Bank
Hamilton proposed to create a national bank for depositing govt funds and for printing banknotes that would provide the basis for a state US currency
Federalists
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Anti-Federalists
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights.
Thomas Jefferson
He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Aaron Burr
United States politician who served as Vice President under Jefferson
Elastic Clause
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
Democratic-Republican Party
political party founded in the1790s that sought to preserve the power of the state governments and promote agriculture.
Federalist Party
A political party created in the 1790s and influenced by Alexander Hamilton that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade
Washington's Farewell Address
Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.
Alien and Sedition Acts
In 1798, Federalist-supported laws that permitted the president to expel foreigners, made it harder for immigrants to become citizens, and allowed for citizens to be fined or jailed if they criticized the government or its officials
Election of 1796
John Adams became President because he had the most electoral votes. Thomas Jefferson became Vice President because he had the second most electoral votes. A problem from this situation was they belonged to different political parties, so political tensions were strong in the Executive Branch.
impressment
British practice of taking American sailors and forcing them into military service
Election of 1800
Tie between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson which went to the House of Representatives. Jefferson won the presidency after 36 ballots when Alexander Hamilton persuaded three members of the House to vote for Jefferson. Significance: 12 amendment
Twelfth Amendment
An amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1804, that specifies the separate election of the president and vice president by the electoral college. It was created to prevent the conflict after the Election of 1800
Revolution of 1800
In the United States, political power had passed from Federalists to Democratic-Republicans without any violence when Jefferson became president after the Election of 1800
foreign policy
a country's overall plan for dealing with other countries
isolationism
a policy of avoiding political or military agreements with other countries; first established by George Washington
neutrality
a policy of not choosing sides in a war or dispute between other countries
John Adams
He was the second president of the United States and a Federalist. He was responsible for passing the Alien and Sedition Acts. Prevented all out war with France after the XYZ Affair. His passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts severely hurt the popularity of the Federalist party and himself
states' rights
belief that because the states created the United States, individual states have the power to nullify federal laws
War of 1812
War between the U.S. and Great Britain which lasted until 1814, ending with the Treaty of Ghent and a renewed sense of American nationalism
Tecumseh
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing American settlement (1768-1813)
War Hawks
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America and expand.
Battle of New Orleans
A battle during the War of 1812 where the British army attempted to take New Orleans. Due to the foolish frontal attack, Jackson defeated them, which gave him an enormous popularity boost.
Treaty of Ghent
a treaty signed in Belgium that ends the War of 1812; it is signed in 1814 but since news took over six weeks to get across, the Battle of New Orleans was still fought in 1815
Monroe Doctrine
President James Monroe's statement forbidding further colonization in the Americas and declaring that any attempt by a foreign country to colonize would be considered an act of hostility