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146 terms

EKG State Test - Study Guide

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A U wave usually occurs when
a patient has a very low K+ (Potassium)
The ORS complex occurs when
the ventricles contract
On an EKG machine, the Standard checks
the voltage that the instrument is using
The heart has 4 valves that are made up of
endocardium
Blood leaves the heart through the
pulmonic and aortic valves
Pulmonic and Aortic valves are also called
semilunar valves
As blood returns to the heart from the body
it enters the right atrium
Where does the superior vena cava get its blood from?
the head, neck and upper extremeties
The innermost layer of the heart is called the
endocardium
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a condition when the heart
cannot meet the demands of the body. The body compensates in three major ways
The two entrance valves of the heart are the
tricuspid and bicuspid valves
The semilunar valves are the
pulmonic and aortic valves
The pericardium is the
fibrous outer fluid filled layer that covers the heart and separates it from the contents in the chest cavity
The EKG records the electrical impulses called the
cardiac cycle
The cardiac cycle is represented by the
P Wave, QRS complex and the T Wave.
The P Wave represents the
contraction of the atrium
QRS Complex represents the
contraction of the ventricles
T wave represents the
relaxation of the ventricles
U wave is
not always seen but represents possible low potassium
The right and left atria are known as the
"receiving" chambers
When blood is on its way from the left atrium to the left ventricle
it goes through the mitral valve
The only way to oxygenate the blood is through the
alveoli and capillaries in the lungs
The right and left side of the heart is
separated by the septum
The speed that an EKG is normally run is
25 mm/sec
The color of the ground lead is
Green
the approximate diameter of the coronary arteries is
1/8 inch
Another name for the bicuspid valve is
mitral valve
The purpose of the gel on the elctrode is
to conduct electricity
The myocardium will get nourishment from
the coronary arteries
If the blood supply to the myocardium stops the
area that doesnt receive a blood supply dies
The myocardium is the
thickest layer of the heart
The size of a normal heart is
about the size of your fist
the heart functions as a
pump to pump blood to all the body's cells
Blood returns to the heart through the
inferior and superior vena cava
The inferior vena cava brings
blood from below the diaphragm
the superior vena cava gets blood from
the head, neck and upper extremeties
Pulmonary vein is the only vein that carries
high oxygen blood; comes from the lungs and returns blood back to the left atrium for eventual circulation to body organs and cells
the term for "rapid heart beat" is
tachycardia
Coronary insufficiency
flow is considered insufficient if it cannot meet the needs of the heart
The purpose of the conduction system is to
initiate the heart beat and regulate the cardiac cycle
Ectopic is an adjective reerring to
an event or tissue occuring at a place other than its normal location
Ectopic heart beats are generated from an
impulse originating some other place than the SA node
The SA node is located on
the upper wall of the right atrium
The SA nodes function is to
generate the stimulus to make the heart beat
The order of the impulse in the conduction pathway is:
1. first it travels to the SA node also known as the sinoatrial node.
2. Next the impulse moves to the AV node also known as the atrioventricular node
3. Then on to the bundle of His
4. Throught the bundle of His where the impulse separates to travel through the right and left bundle branches
5. and finally the impulses reach the purkinje fibers
6. Once th electrical stimulus is in the purkinje fibers the ventricles contract.
The term for the heart when it is contracting is
systole
Fibrillation is a nonsynchronous contraction of
muscle tissue, with individual cells firing at their own rate
Fibrillation can be isolated to the
atria or ventricles.
Ventricle fibrillation is not compatible with
life
A heart in fibrillation has been described as looking and feeling like a
bag of worms
In the heart, when the atria contract
the blood is squeezed into the ventricles
When the heart beats too slow
the patient can suffer from syncope
The heart is lociated in the
Mediastinum
The function of the heart is to
pump sufficient amounts of blood to all of the cells in the body
The U wave usually appears after the
T Wave
Ischemia is
reduced (isch) blood (emia)
Ischemia is a condition of
inadequate blood flow to a tissue.
Ischemia to the heart can cause
angina and if present long enough, infarction
Precordial leads are
chest leads
The right leg electrode shows
no cardiac information, and serves as a ground electrode
A muscle tremor would look like a
fuzzy irregular baseline on an EKG
A broken cable wire would cause a
wandering baseline
Mediumstinum is
the space between the lungs in the chest cavity; holds the heart and other respiratory units
Electrodes are
plates that come between patient and the current
Augmented lead aVR goes to the
right arm
When the myocardium is stimulated its
muscle contracts
The myocardium is made of
muscle
If the patient has the right arm amputated above the elbow place the lead on the
upper part of the that arm
If the patient has an amputation, the important thing to do is to be sure that wherever you place the lead, you use the
same corresponding spot on the opposite limb
You standardize an EKG
before and after you run the EKG
Pulmonary Artery is the only artery that
carries low oxygen blood; leaves right ventricle and goes to the lungs
Normal sinus rhythm has a rate of
60-100 beats per minute and each complex is complete and normal in appearance
The term bradycardia means the
heart rate is below 60 beats per minute
A sinus arrhythmia can be caused by
changes in breathing
Asystole is a flat line associate with
death
Pulmonary circulation is
circulation that goes to the heart's right atrium to the lungs where it is oxygenated and releases built up carbon dioxide
If the heart beat fires ectopically its means the
One oft
Chordae tendinea holds the
heart valves in place
A heart murmur is the sound of
faulty avtion when the valves close
Ischemia is the lack of
sufficient blood supply to an area of the myocardium
A patient may feel heart pain due to an
inadequate blood flow to the heart muscle
An MI is a myocardial infarct and occurs when the
myocardial tissue suffers death to the area because of insufficient blood flow
One of the major causes of heart failure is
untreated high blood pressure
You calculate the heart rate from an EKG strip by
counting the number of complete complexes in 3, or 6 seconds and multiply by 20 or 10
The difference between agonal and asystole on an EKG is that
asystole on an EKG ia flat line, while agonal is less than 20 beats per minute
An electrocardiogram is a
recording or tracing of an EKG
Ten electrodes are used for a
12 Lead EKG
A cardiac cycle is the beginning of a beat
until the beginning of the next beat
PQRST complex represents
one entire cardiac cycle
The T Wave shows the
relaxation of the ventricles
An artificial pacemaker looks like a
straight, hard vertical line or spike on an EKG
The apex of the heart is the
pointed bottom end of the heart
The apex lies
on the diaphragm
The base of the heart is the
upper border of the heart and is broad in shape
The blood in the pumonary veins
goes to the left atrium
The pericardial sac encloses
the heart
There are many things that happen to an artery that contribute to having a heart attack. The following is a list of how it starts and how it ends
1. the first thing in the process is plaque builds up in the arteries, which narrows the artery
2. Then is a piece of this plaque breaks off, it bleeds and causes a clot to form
3. After which the clot travels along until it comes to an artery that is too narrow for it to pass through
4. Last thing that happens is that this cuts the blood supply off to that area and the area dies. A heart attack has occurred.
Repolarization is the
relaxation phase
Depolarization is he
contraction phase
The base of the heart is located just below the
2nd rib
A heart chamber empties the blood during the
contraction and systolic phase
When the ventricles are in the systole phase, they are
pumping the blood out of the chamber by contraction
The left ventricle is the
largest chamber in the heart
The left ventricle is the largest chamber in the heart because is has the job of
pumping blood out to all parts of the body
The receiving chambers of the heart are the
right atrium and left atrium and th etwo chambers that push the blood out of the heart called the left and right ventricles
The left ventricle is the largest chamber of the heart because it
pushes the blood out of the heart throughout the body
The cardiac tissue is unique because
it is all fused together so it acts as one
Lead aVF goes to the
left leg
A major cause of artherosclerosis is the
build-up of fat deposits on the walls of the arteries
Angina is heart pain from
lack of circulation to coronary arteries
When the heart rate goes down to 40-60 beats per minute
the impulse is usually generated in the AV node
The aorta leaves the heart and
carries blood to all parts of the body
The bottom umber of blood pressure represents the
relaxing or diastolic phase
When measuring the height of peaks in an EKG
each large square represents 5mm x 5mm
Each small square represents
.04 seconds on EKG paper
atrioventricular (AV) node is
specialized conduction tissue found in the right atrium
In a healthy heart the AV node is the
only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles.
By having a relatively slow conduction rate, the AV node allows the atria to
empty more blood into the ventricles before they contract
The purkinje fibers are
specialized conducting cells found in the ventricular septum of the heart
The purkinje fibers transmit the impulse from
the AV node to the myocardium.
Purkinjie fibers are organized in such a way as to
mediate a smooth contraction that wrings the blood from the apex out toward the base of the heart.
Vagal tone is virtually synonymous with
parasympathetic tone in regards to the heart.
Stimulation of the vagus causes a
decreased heart rate, which in turn causes a drop in blood pressure.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
a conduction disorder of the heart where electrical pathways other than the AV nodal system connect the atria with the ventricles. This type of disorder can lead to reentrant arryhthmias
Tricuspid Valve
located between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Has three cusps
Mitral Valve
located between the left atrium and the left ventricle. It has two cusps and it is also called the bicuspid valve
The Primary characteristics of the cardia cells are:
automaticity, excitability, conductivity, contractility
Automaticity
this is the ability of the cardiac pacemaker cells to spontaneously initiate their own electrical impulse without being stimulated from another source. Sites that possess this characteristic are the SA node, AV junction and the purkinje fibers
Excitability
also referred to as irritability. This characteristic is shared by all cardiac cells and it is the ability to respond to external stimulus; electrical, chemical ad mechanical
Conductivity
This is the ability of all cardiac cells to receive an electrical stimulus and transmit the stimulus to the other cardiac cells.
Contractility
this is the ability of the cardiac cells to shorten and cause cardiac muscle contraction in response to an electrical stimulus
The heart is classified a
hollow, muscular organ
The heart is made up of four layers
endocardium
myocardium
epicardium
pericardium
Endocardium
inner layer of the heart
myocardium
the muscular layer of the heart
epicardium
is the outer layer of the heart
pericardium
outer sac surrounding the heart that separates the heart from the rest of the chest cavity
A lead is
the gel or pad that conducts electricity
the cardiac muscle has three stages and can be called different terms
1. Contraction or Systole or Depolarization
2. Relaxation or diastole or repolarization
3. Baseline or polarization
The normal standard is
10mm/mv
Another name for the resting phase on an EKG is the
baseline
the term electrocardiograph is the instrument used for
recording the heart's activity
The P wave shows the
atrial contraction
Another name for Leads aVF, a VL, aVR is
augmented
Sympathetic nerves are the
fight or flight response
The sympathetic system prepares the body for action by:
increasing heart rate
increasing contractility
increasing blood pressure
blood flow increased to the skeletal muscle
blood flow decreased to the viscera
release of catacholamines by adrenal gland
retention of sodium and water ( secretion of renin from the kidney)
relaxation of bronchiolar smooth muscle