46 terms

Foundations of American Government (USHistory.org American Gvt Chpt 2)

STUDY
PLAY
USA
What country has the longest surviving written national constitution?
Gutenberg
Though Chinese monks were using block printing nearly 600 years earlier, Johannes __________ invented the mechanical printing press in the mid 15th century.
printing press
Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the mechanical __________ in the mid 15th century.
Hobbes
In his book Leviathan, Thomas __________ called for a strong ruler to protect people from each other.
Montesquieu
Called for a separation of governmental powers into three branches.
John Locke
According to __________, governments are instituted among men in order to protect their natural rights and that the authority of any legitimate government comes from the consent of the governed. This is known as social contract theory.
consent of the governed
According to John Locke, the authority of any legitimate government comes from the __________.
life, liberty, and property
John Locke believed that the government should protect the people's natural rights, which included __________.
overthrow
According to John Locke, citizens or subjects of any government had the right to __________ that government if it failed to protect their natural rights.
natural rights
According to John Locke, citizens or subjects of any government had the right to overthrow that government if it failed to protect their __________.
Thomas Jefferson
John Locke's ideas about government influenced __________ as he was writing the first draft of the Declaration of Independence.
Magna Carta
__________ - 1215 document that theoretically limited the power of the English king.
1215
The Magna Carta was signed in _________ A.D.
John
English King __________ was forced to sign the Magna Carta at Runnymede by a group of rebellious Barons who wanted to restrict what they saw as his abuse of power.
Petition of Right
The __________ (1628) was an act of Parliament that restricted the King's ability to tax without Parliamentary approval, to quarter soldiers in private homes, to arbitrarily imprison people, and to impose martial law during peacetime.
English Bill of Rights
__________ - the 1689 act of Parliament that was part of the Glorious Revolution that removed King James II from the throne and further limited the power of future monarchs to interfere in elections, trials or the freedom of religion for protestants.
salutary neglect
Throughout much of the colonial period, England (Great Britain after the Act of Union of 1707) mostly allowed colonies to rule themselves with limited interference and oversight. This is frequently referred to as being a period of __________ by historians.
property owning males
The colonies had legislatures whose members were elected by the __________ in the colonies.
Virginia
The first colonial legislature was in the colony of __________. It was called the House of Burgesses and was formed in 1619.
Mayflower
The group of Pilgrims that founded Plymouth Plantation in 1620 crossed the Atlantic in what ship?
Mayflower Compact
The agreement among most of the men aboard the Mayflower to form a government once ashore is known as the __________.
Mercantilism
__________ - the early modern period economic theory that national wealth and strength came from using strict trade regulations and overseas colonies to maximize a favorable balance of trade. This means importing more raw materials (especially from colonies) while exporting more valuable manufactured goods.
Import
__________ - to purchase goods and bring them into one nation from another nation; any good purchased from another nation.
Export
__________ - to sell and ship goods to another nation; any good purchased and shipped to another nation.
smugglers
England's attempts to regulate colonial trade were frequently thwarted by __________.
smuggle
To __________ something is to secretly ship it into the country to avoid paying tariffs.
tariff
A __________ is a tax on an import or export.
French and Indian War
The __________ was a war between the British and the French in North America that lasted from 1754 to 1763. Both sides had Native American allies. It became part of the world wide Seven Years War in 1756 as conflict spread around the globe and grew to involve most European great powers.
freedom
Many colonists came to British North America for religious __________.
discriminate
Some religious groups (mainly Puritans) that came to the colonies wanted both the freedom to practice their religion and to __________ against other religions.
Quaker
William Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, was a __________.
Catholic
George and Cecil Calvert, founders of Maryland, were __________.
religious diversity
By the end of the colonial era, the colonies had a large amount of __________, including Anglicans, Calivinists, Catholics, Jews, Quakers, Muslims, etc.
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty or give me death!" is a famous quote attributed to __________.
Second Continental Congress
The _________ voted to declare independence from Britain on July 2, 1776.
July 2, 1776
The Second Continental Congress voted to declare independence from Britain on __________.
Declaration of Independence
The Second Continental Congress voted to approve the final draft of the __________ on July 4, 1776.
1775 to 1783
The American war for independence (American Revolution) lasted from __________.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty that ended the Revolutionary War was the __________.
treaty
A __________ is a formal ratified agreement between countries.
Articles of Confederation
The first constitution of the United States of America was the __________.
1781
The first constitution of the United States, the Articles of Confederation, was ratified in __________.
John Locke
__________ included life, liberty and property as being natural rights.
pursuit of happiness
Thomas Jefferson borrowed heavily from John Locke's social contract theory, though he changed life, liberty and property to life, liberty and the __________.
Shays' Rebellion
__________ was a revolt by farmers in western Massachusetts. The were upset about their property being foreclosed upon due mostly to deflationary pressure.
Confederation Congress
The __________ was unable to respond effectively to Shays' Rebellion and other similar problems. This convinced many leaders that drastic change to the national government was necessary.