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change in the genetic makeup of a population form generation to generation

population genetics

the study of how populations change genetically over time

modern synthesis

theory of evolution that integrated ideas from many other fields


localized group of individuals that reproduce together

gene pool

genes in a population at an one time

Hardy-Weinberg Theorem

states that the frequecies of allels and genotypes in a population's gene pool rmain constant froom generation to generation


important souce of variation

natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment

genetic drift

change in the gene pool of a population due to chance

bottleneck effect

Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.

founder effect

change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population

gene flow

movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population


the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species

phenotypic polymorphism

existence of two or more distinct morphs (discrete forms), each represented in a population in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable

genetic polymorphisms

genetic variations among individuals that produce multiple forms of a given protein


a gradient in a phenotypic character along a geographical gradient such as latitude or altitude

direction selection

a type of natural selection in which one extreme phenotype is favored over all others

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