17 terms

Ch. 23 The Evolution of Populations

change in the genetic makeup of a population form generation to generation
population genetics
the study of how populations change genetically over time
modern synthesis
theory of evolution that integrated ideas from many other fields
localized group of individuals that reproduce together
gene pool
genes in a population at an one time
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
states that the frequecies of allels and genotypes in a population's gene pool rmain constant froom generation to generation
important souce of variation
natural selection
a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment
genetic drift
change in the gene pool of a population due to chance
bottleneck effect
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
founder effect
change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
gene flow
movement of alleles into or out of a population due to the migration of individuals to or from the population
the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species
phenotypic polymorphism
existence of two or more distinct morphs (discrete forms), each represented in a population in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable
genetic polymorphisms
genetic variations among individuals that produce multiple forms of a given protein
a gradient in a phenotypic character along a geographical gradient such as latitude or altitude
direction selection
a type of natural selection in which one extreme phenotype is favored over all others