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Psychology 1010 Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Vocab.
Terms in this set (41)
A persistent disturbance or dysfunction in behavior, thoughts, or emotions that cause significant distress or impairment.
Abnormal psychological experiences are conceptualized as illnesses that, like physical illnesses, have biological and environmental causes, defined symptoms, and possible cures.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
A classification system that describes the features used to diagnose each recognized mental disorder and indicates how the disorder can be distinguished from other, similar problems.
The co-occurrence of two or more disorders in a single individual.
Explains mental disorders as the result of interactions among biological, psychological, and social factors.
Suggests that a person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress.
Research Domain Criteria Project (RDoC)
A new initiative that aims to guide the classification and understanding of mental disorders by revealing the basic processes that give rise to them.
The class of mental disorder to which anxiety is the predominant feature.
Disorders characterized by marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities, or situations.
A disorder that involves an irrational fear of a particular object or situation that markedly interferes with an individual's ability to function.
A disorder that involves an irrational fear of being publicly humiliated or embarrassed.
The idea that people are instinctively predisposed toward certain fears.
A disorder characterized by the sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror.
A specific phobia involving a fear of public places.
generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
A disorder characterized by chronic excessive worry accompanied by three or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration problems, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbance.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
A disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and ritualistic behaviors (compulsions) designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning.
posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
A disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent unwanted thoughts or images of the trauma, and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind.
Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature.
major depressive disorder (or unipolar depression)
A disorder characterized by severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy, and sleep and appetite disturbance.
seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
Recurrent depressive episodes in a seasonal pattern.
The idea that individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (i.e., their own fault), stable (i.e., unlikely to change), and global (i.e., widespread).
A condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression).
A measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional overinvolvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder.
A psychotic disorder characterized by the profound disruption of basic psychological processes; a distorted perception of reality; altered or blunted emotion; and disturbances in thought, motivation, and behavior.
Thoughts and behaviors present in schizophrenia but not seen in those without the disorder, such as delusions and hallucinations.
False perceptual experiences that have a compelling sense of being real despite the absence of external stimulation.
Patently false beliefs, often bizarre and grandiose, that are maintained in spite of their irrationality.
A severe disruption of verbal communication in which ideas shift rapidly and incoherently among unrelated topics.
grossly disorganized behavior
Behavior that is inappropriate for the situation or ineffective in attaining goals, often with specific motor disturbances.
A marked decrease in all movement or an increase in muscular rigidity and overactivity.
Deficits or disruptions to normal emotions and behaviors (e.g., emotional and social withdrawal; apathy; poverty of speech; and other indications of the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior, motivation, and emotion).
Deficits in cognitive abilities, specifically in executive functioning, attention, and working memory.
The idea that schizophrenia involves an excess of dopamine activity.
autism spectrum disorder (ASD)
A condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviors, interests, or activities.
attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
A persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairments in functioning.
A persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression against people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious rule violations.
Enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functioning.
antisocial personality disorder (APD)
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood.
Intentional self-inflicted death.
Self-inflicted injury from which a person has at least some intention of dying.
nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI)
Direct, deliberate destruction of body tissue in the absence of any intent to die.