209 terms

US EOC 2018-2019

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Virginia Colony
This colony was founded in 1607. First settlement was Jamestown. Charter formed by stock company. Tobacco was vital to its survival.
Jamestown
The first permanent English settlement in North America on the banks of the James River in Virginia in 1607.
tobacco
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown - John Rolfe
Powhatan
Local Indian chief who helped supply food to Jamestown. Ruled over much of what is Virginia today. Relationship with English was rocky at first, then learned to live together.
House of Burgesses
1619 - the first legislative body in colonial America. Elected assembly in Virginia. Members were wealthy land owners.
Bacon's Rebellion
Settlers in western Virginia rebel against governor. Showed frustration over govt. control by wealthy planters, willingness to fight - unequal distribution of land / land=wealth.
New England colonies
Puritan dominated, forced conversion of faith, education is stressed, access to trade. The term for the colonies of Massachusetts bay, Rhode Island, and New Hampshire - colonies with long, cold winters and a strict focus on religion
Middle Colonies
Delaware, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania -
colonies with mild winters, rich soil, many large cities, combo of agriculture/commerce and religious diversity
Southern Colonies
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; very rural with large farms "plantations" with use of slave labor; tobacco, cotton, indigo, and rice were grown with tobacco being the largest cash crop
King Phillip's War
War between the Native American tribes of New England and British colonists that took place from 1675-1676. The war was the result of tension caused by encroaching white settlers. The chief of the Wampanoags, King Philip lead the natives. The war ended Indian resistance in New England and left a hatred of whites.
Puritans
A religious group who wanted to purify the Church of England. They came to America for religious freedom and settled Massachusetts Bay. Very strict and formal; literacy highly stressed to read scripture; church is center of the community-law makers, teachers, police; poor relations with natives; John Williams
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preached a doctrine of pacifism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania. Informal; casual; religion is choice, not forced; good relations with natives
Pennsylvania
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. This colony allowed religious freedom. Proprietary land grant, thank you for loyalty to King
Salem Witch Trials
1629 outbreak of witchcraft accusations in a Massachusetts Bay puritan village marked by an atmosphere of fear, hysteria and stress. Spectral evidence was used frequently. Leads to separation of church and state. Massachusetts lost its charter because of too much involvement of church in government.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
French settlement of Quebec
first French colony in North America; one of the main reasons the French wanted the Ohio River Valley was to connect this to Louisiana; make money off of fur trade
mecantilism
system based on exporting more than a country imports; needs colonies to supply materials and be a market for goods, colonies can only trade with parent country
triangle trade
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back. AKA Colombian Exchange and European Exchange
Middle Passage
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
Enlightenment
A popular philosophical movement of the 1700's that focused on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy.
Ben Franklin
A delegate from Pennsylvania and proposed the "Albany Plan of the Union" as a way to strengthen colonies and diplomat sent to France to get help during revolution; he was an example of quest for knowledge
Great Awakening
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established. Puritan revival
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won. Fought for control of North America.
Treaty of Paris 1763
Ended French and Indian War, France lost Canada, land east of the Mississippi, to British, New Orleans and west of Mississippi to Spain
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the King James III, British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.; created to prevent another native revolt like Pontiac's Rebellion
Stamp Act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc. Used to pay for French and Indian War.
Intolerable Acts
series of laws passed in 1774 to punish Boston for the Tea Party
Coercive Acts
This series of laws were very harsh laws that intended to make Massachusetts pay for its resistance. It also closed down the Boston Harbor until the Massachusetts colonists paid for the ruined tea. Also forced Bostonians to shelter soldiers in their own homes.
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. Leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.
Daughters of Liberty
a group of women who stopped buying British goods such as cloth. Consequently, they had to make their cloth.
Committee of Correspondence
colonial organization organized in 1770 to spread news of Great Britain's actions and acts throughout the colonies
Common Sense
1776: a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that claimed the colonies had a right to be an independent nation
Declaration of Independence
1776 statement, issued by the Second Continental Congress, explaining why the colonies wanted independence from Britain. Inspired by Common Sense and Enlightenment ideals; inspired France and countries in Latin America to experience revolutions. Includes list of charges against the King. Written by committee of 6, including Thomas Jefferson who gets most credit for writing it.
Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who helped train American soldiers and who joined General Washington's staff and became a general in the Continental Army. Came up with Battle of Yorktown plan.
Battle of Trenton
On Christmas day at night, Washington's soldiers began crossing the Delaware River. The next morning, they surprise attacked the British mercenaries which were Hessians. Huge moral victory for Americans.
George Washington
(1732-1799) 1st President, he did not belong to any political party. Virginian who began as a commander and chief in the Revolutionary war. Had no desire to become president but the people wanted a strong national leader. Warned US against being involved in foreign politics. He was knowledgeable, confident.
Battle of Valley Forge
1777-1778, Washington and his men have a brutal winter, nearly don't make it, but then French alliance is secured, and Friedrich Von Steuben and Marquis De Lafayette train them to become a real army
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the Revolutionary War. Britain is defeated and America wins the war. Cornwallis and his troops were trapped in the Chesapeake Bay by the French fleet. He was sandwiched between the French navy and the American army. He surrendered October 19, 1781.
Treaty of Paris 1783
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Articles of Confederation
1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade) made a loose collection of states
Daniel Shay's Rebellion
An armed rebellion of western Massachusetts farmers in 1786 to prevent state courts from foreclosing on debtors. Tests the Articles of Confederation. Nationalists saw such unrest as proof the Articles of Confederation weren't working - results in Constitutional Convention
Anti-Federalist
A group who opposed the ratification of the Constitution in 1787. They opposed a strong central government (tyranny) and supported states' rights.
Federalist
Supporters of the Constitution that were led by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. They firmly believed the national government should be strong. They didn't want the Bill of Rights because they felt citizens' rights were already well protected by the Constitution.
Checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
separation of powers
Constitutional division of powers among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches, with the legislative branch making law, the executive applying and enforcing the law, and the judiciary interpreting the law
James Madison
"Father of the Constitution". He believes in pure democracy - majority rules. His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Alexander Hamilton
1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt. Believed that professionals should make governmental decisions.
New Jersey Plan
Proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by William Paterson of New Jersey for a central government with a single-house legislature in which each state would be represented equally.
Virginia Plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population - favored large states and was bicameral; representation based on population and wealth
Great Compromise
AKA Connecticut Plan. Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature (Senate) and representation based on population in the other house (House of Representatives)
3/5 Compromise
The population of slaves would be counted as three-fifths in total when apportioning Representatives, as well as Presidential electors and taxes. The Three-Fifths Compromise was proposed by James Wilson and Roger Sherman, who were both delegates for the Constitutional Convention of 1787.
Washington's Presidency
Precedents set by Washington: -First cabinet, five departments: State, Treasury, War, Attorney General and Postmaster General
Whiskey Rebellion
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Federalist Party
1792-1816. Formed by Alexander Hamilton. Controlled the government until 1801. Wanted strong nationalistic government. Opposed by Democratic Republicans. One of the 1st political parties in the US.
Democratic Republicans
Led by Thomas Jefferson, believed people should have political power, favored strong STATE governments, emphasized agriculture, strict interpretation of the Constitution, pro-French, opposed National Bank. One of the 1st political parties in the US.
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory. He ordinance forbade slavery in the territory but allowed citizens to vote on the legality of slavery once statehood had been established. The Northwest Ordinance was the most lasting measure of the national government under the Articles of Confederation
Louisiana Purchase
1803 - The U.S. purchased the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains from Napoleon for $15 million. Jefferson was interested in the territory because it would give the U.S. the Mississippi River and New Orleans (both were valuable for trade and shipping) and also room to expand. Napoleon wanted to sell because he needed money for his European campaigns and because a rebellion against the French in Haiti had soured him on the idea of New World colonies.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to sell in the North and allowed northern manufacturers to ship finished goods to sell in the West.
Monroe Doctrine
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
Eli Whitney
An American inventor who developed the cotton gin. Also contributed to the concept of interchangeable parts that were exactly alike and easily assembled or exchanged
cotton gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
Manifest Destiny
A notion held by a nineteenth-century Americans that the United States was destined to rule the continent, from the Atlantic the Pacific.
temperance movement
an organized effort to end alcohol abuse and the problems created by it
abolition movement
Campaign against slavery and the slave trade
public school movement
Statewide Common School System. Horace Mann, head of newly formed Massachusetts State Board of Education, supervised the creation of a statewide common school system.
Seneca Falls Convention
Took place in upperstate New York in 1848; women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women; wrote the Declaration of Sentiments which tried to get women the right to vote.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Andrew Jackson and War of 1812
His troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
Jacksonian Democracy
A policy of spreading more political power to more people. It was a "Common Man" theme.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Nat Turner's Rebellion
The slave revolt that resulted in its leader and 19 others being hanged, the deaths of 160 people, the collapse of abolitionist societies in the South and stricter slave code.
abolitionists
people who believed that slavery should be against the law
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Frederick Douglass
One of the most prominent African American figures in the abolitionist movement; escaped from slavery; advocated freedom from slavery & full citizenship rights for all blacks; founded abolitionist paper "The North Star"
Grimke sisters
were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.
Missouri Compromise
"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.
Nullification Crisis
A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.
US war with Mexico
This was lasted from 1846-1848 between two countries. Finally, a the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed. In the agreement, one country had to give the other more than 500,000 square miles of territory and the Rio Grande was accepted as a border. The other country had to pay around $17 million.
Wilmot Proviso
1846 proposal that outlawed slavery in any territory gained from the War with Mexico
Compromise of 1850
(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law; advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
popular sovereignty
A government in which the people rule by their own consent.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man. The U.S, Supreme Court decided he couldn't sue in federal court because he was property, not a citizen.
Gettysburg Address
(1863) a speech given by Abraham Lincoln after the Battle of Gettysburg, in which he praised the bravery of Union soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil War; supported the ideals of self-government and human rights
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Robert E Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
he was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults. he earned his nickname at the battle of first bull run for standing courageously against union fire. During the battle of Chancellorsville his own men accidentally mortally wounded him.
William T. Sherman
general whose march to sea caused destruction to the south, union general, led march to destroy all supplies and resoures, beginning of total warfare
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Battle of Ft. Sumter
A battle that started the war. And the confederates first victory
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
Battle of Gettysburg
Turning point of the War that made it clear the North would win. 50,000 people died, and the South lost its chance to invade the North.
Battle of Atlanta
Federal troops under Sherman cut off the railroads supplying Atlanta and burned the city
Emancipation Proclamation
(1862) an order issued by President Abraham Lincoln freeing the slaves in areas rebelling against the Union; took effect January 1, 1863
suspension of habeas corpus
Federal judge Roger Taney, the chief justice of the Supreme Court (and also the author of the infamous Dred Scott decision), issued a ruling that President Lincoln did not have the authority to suspend habeas corpus. Lincoln didn't respond, appeal, or order the release of Merryman. But during a July 4 speech, Lincoln was defiant, insisting that he needed to suspend the rules in order to put down the rebellion in the South.
advantages of North during Civil War
a)larger population, b)most of the factories to make supplies, c)most of the railroads located in the north, d)strong Navy, e)more money, f)they had an established government
advantages of South during Civil War
a) had more experienced military leaders b) knowledge of the land c) belief in their cause
Election of 1876
Ended reconstruction because neither canidate had an electorial majority. Hayes was elected, and then ended reconstruction as he secretly promised
railroads
Were essential to westward expansion because they made it easier to travel to and live in the west
Transcontinental Railroad
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. The two lines met in Utah. The Central Pacific laborers were predominantly Chinese, and the Union Pacific laborers predominantly Irish. Both groups often worked under harsh conditions.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
Robber Barron
Perception that a business owner has become successful through dishonest methods ex: John D. Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was one of the "Robber barons"
John D. Rockefeller
Wealthy owner of Standard Oil Company. Considered to be a robber baron who used ruthless tactics to eliminate other businesses.
JP Morgan
Banker who buys out Carnegie Steel and renames it to U.S. Steel. Was a philanthropist in a way; he gave all the money needed for WWI and was payed back. Was one of the "Robber barons"
trust
A group of corporations run by a single board of directors
Thomas Edison
American inventor best known for inventing the electric light bulb, acoustic recording on wax cylinders, and motion pictures.
Ellis Island
major entry point for European immigrants
Angel Island
The immigration station on the west coast where Asian immigrants, mostly Chinese gained admission to the U.S. at San Francisco Bay. Between 1910 and 1940 50k Chinese immigrants entered through this station.
AFL
A labor union formed in 1886 by Samuel Gompers in order to voice the working class (only highly skilled laborers). It fought against labor forces and debated work conditions for skilled workers. Utilized strikes.
Samuel Gompers
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.
Wounded Knee
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place in South Dakota and 300 Natives were murdered
Sitting Bull
American Indian chief, he lead the victory of Little Bighorn
Little Big Horn
General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
1894 Pullman Strike
A nationwide railroad strike in the US, it pitted the American Railway Union against Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the government. The boycott shutdown much of the nations freight passenger traffic west of Detroit Michigan. This conflict began in Pullman Chicago when 4,000 workers at the Pullman Company went on a wild strike because wages were reduced.
Upton Sinclar
Wrote "The Jungle" and about the deplorable conditions in the meatpacking industry. He got the Pure Food and Drug Act Passed.
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
Jane Addams
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, day care, and child care classes
Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.
Plessy v. Ferguson
established separate but equal doctrine
NAACP
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
initiative
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
recall
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
referendum
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
17th amendment
direct election of senators
labor laws
State and federal safety regulations and compliance assistance to protect the wages, health benefits, retirement security, employment rights, safety, and health of America's workforce
Theodore Roosevelt
established national parks and conservation
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, "Square Deal," Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War
Spanish American War
War that began in 1898 and stemmed from furor in America over treatment of Cubans by Spanish troops that controlled the island; a major result of this was the acquisition of the Philippines, which made America a major power in the Pacific.
Roosevelt Corollary
(TR) , Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force, first put into effect in Dominican Republic
Panama Canal
connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 - 1914.
US and WWI
declared neutrality at beginning of war
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
Espionage Act
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Red Scare
A social/political movement designed to prevent a socialist/communist/radical movement in this country by finding "radicals," incarcerating them, deporting them, and subverting their activities
Eugene V. Debs
Head of the American Railway Union and director of the Pullman strike; he was imprisoned along with his associates for ignoring a federal court injunction to stop striking. While in prison, he read Socialist literature and emerged as a Socialist leader in America.
14 Points
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the Germans punishment for war. Points included: people all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world organization/League of Nations.
League of Nations
A world organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation and peace. It was first proposed in 1918 by President Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined the League. Essentially powerless, it was officially dissolved in 1946.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air Force. 2) Germany had to pay war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
18th amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
19th amendment
Gave women the right to vote
mass production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947).
Louis Armstrong
Leading African American jazz musician during the Harlem Renaissance; he was a talented trumpeter whose style influenced many later musicians.
origins of jazz
began from African American spirituals, 1920s as the "Jazz Age," introduction of blues, improvisation, introduction of big band and swing styles
Langston Hughes
African American poet who described the rich culture of african American life using rhythms influenced by jazz music. He wrote of African American hope and defiance, as well as the culture of Harlem and also had a major impact on the Harlem Renaissance.
Harlem Renaissance
Celebration of African American culture through music, poetry, and writing. Key people - Langston Hughes, Claude Monet, Zora Neale Hurston
Irving Berlin
Composed jazz songs for a golden age of musical theatre
probably the most prolific and commerically successful Tin Pan Alley composer, who wrote White Christmas, God Bless America, and Alexander's Ragtime Band
Tin Pan Alley
is the name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States in the late 1800's and early 1900's.
TVA
The Tennessee Valley Authority was created in 1933 in order to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, and economic development in the Tennessee Valley, a region particularly impacted by the Great Depression
Wagner Act
1935; established National Labor Relations Board; protected the rights of most workers in the private sector to organize labor unions, to engage in collective bargaining, and to take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands.
SSA
Social Security Act: Relief passed in 1935 to provide Americans with retirement benefits. Mandated unemployment and disability insurance. Workers and employers pay into this fund.
Eleanor Roosevelt
wife of FDR who helped him monitor New Deal programs and became a strong voice for women and minorities
Huey Long
"Kingfish" Rep. senator of LA; pushed "Share Our Wealth" program and make "Every Man a King' at the expense of the wealthy; assassinated
court packing
Attempt by Roosevelt to appoint one new Supreme Court justice for every sitting justice over the age of 70 who had been there for at least 10 years. Wanted to prevent justices from dismantling the new deal. Plan died in congress and made opponents of New Deal inflamed.
Neutrality Act
4 laws passed in the late 1930s that were designed to keep the US out of international incidents
A. Phillip Randolph
He was the black leader of The Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters. He demanded equal opportunities in war jobs and armed forces during WWII. He helped encourage the end of segregation in the military, although that happened after the war.
Pearl Harbor
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Japanese internment
Japanese and Japanese Americans from the West Coast of the United States during WWII. While approximately 10,000 were able to relocate to other parts of the country of their own choosing, the remainder-roughly 110,000 men, women and children-were sent to hastily constructed camps called "War Relocation Centers" in remote portions of the nation's interior.
war mobilization
is the act of assembling and making both troops and supplies ready for war.
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Manhattan Project
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
D-day
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
war in the Pacific
- island hopping strategy; take small/vulnerable islands first, and then the larger ones close to Japan (General Douglas MacArthur
Marshall Plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Truman Doctrine
1947, President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Containment Policy
Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII that said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism); Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
Communist China
After 1949, Mao Zedong took control of China making the two largest nations in the world under communist control
2nd Red Scare
1947 House of Un-American activities begin hearings and root our communists in America; especially go after film makers who were commissioned to make movies that reduced fear of Russians
Joseph McCarthy
1950s; Wisconsin senator claimed to have list of communists in American gov't, but no credible evidence; took advantage of fears of communism post WWII to become incredibly influential
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Cuban Missile Crisis
(JFK) an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later, on condition that US doesn't invade Cuba
Vietnam War
A prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States.
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
baby boom
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Kennedy Administration
Kennedy was the youngest man to be elected president (43). He was also a Catholic (first Catholic president). First ever campaign in American history where the candidates debated each other, also televised
saw the beginning of new hope for both the equal rights of Americans and the peace of the world.
space race
Many scientists and military leaders believed that control of space would be very important. Consequently, the USA and USSR invested billions of dollars in developing satellites, space stations, rockets, etc. This investment led to great scientific advances, but also caused friction and insecurities.
Truman and miliatry integration
1948 issued Executive Order No. 9981 Desegregating the Military
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatically.
Warren Court
the Supreme Court during the period when Earl Warren was chief justice, noted for its activism in the areas of civil rights and free speech
Miranda Rights
A list of rights that police in the United States must read to suspects in custody before questioning them, pursuant to the Supreme Court decision in Miranda v. Arizona.
JFK assassination
JFK assassinated in Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963 by Lee Harvey Oswald. Oswald was then shot by Jack Ruby when being transferred between jails. The Warren Commission was created to investigate the crime.
SNCC
(Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee)-a group established in 1960 to promote and use non-violent means to protest racial discrimination; they were the ones primarily responsible for creating the sit-in movement
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
NOW
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Cesar Chavez
(1) Mexican-American migrant farm worker & founder of the United Farm Workers Organizing Committee in 1963; (2) helped exploited Chicano workers with his successful "boycott grapes" movement that led to better pay, limits on the use of toxic fertilizers, and recognition of farm workers' collective bargaining right
Rachel Carson
"Silent Spring", sparked a real environmentalist movement: which introduced the adverse environmental effects of DDT and the fact that it would kill the enviornment and there would be no birds to sing.- a silent spring
EPA
This was established by Nixon to be responsible for setting and enforcing national pollution-control standards
Barry Goldwater
A candidate for President in 1964, he lost to Lyndon B. Johnson by one of the biggest landslides in U.S. History. Many consider him to be the founder of the modern conservative movement within the Republican party.
Richard Nixon
Elected President in 1968 and 1972 representing the Republican party. He was responsible for getting the United States out of the Vietnam War by using "Vietnamization", which was the withdrawal of 540,000 troops from South Vietnam for an extended period. He was responsible for the Nixon Doctrine. Was the first President to ever resign, due to the Watergate scandal.
Nixon and China
Nixon participated in detente with China and the USSR which meant that he deliberately tried to reduce Cold War tensions. He visited China and held several secret negotiations with Chinese leaders he met with Mao Zedong (China's communist leader) in which he began diplomatic exchanges that led to U.S. recognition of communist China.
White Water Scandal
arose because of Clinton's failed investment in a resort in northeastern Arkansas
Roe v. Wade
The 1973 Supreme Court decision holding that a state ban on all abortions was unconstitutional. The decision forbade state control over abortions during the first trimester of pregnancy, permitted states to limit abortions to protect the mother's health in the second trimester, and permitted states to protect the fetus during the third trimester.
Bakke Decision
The U.S. Supreme Court's 1978 decision that limited, but did not end, affirmative action programs to achieve racial diversity in a university's student body
Camp David Accords
(1978) were negotiated at the presidential retreat of Camp David by Egypt's Anwar Sadat and Israel Menachem Begin; they were brokered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter. They led to a peace treaty the next year that returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, guaranteed Israeli access to the Red Sea and Suez Canal, and more-or-less normalized diplomatic and economic relations between the two countries. This isolated Egypt from the other Arab countries and led to Sadat's assassination in 1981.
1979 Iranian Revolution
the successful attempt of revolutionaries to rise up and overthrow the US backed shah. Then it was followed by conflict between the rebels. The Shiites ultimately took power and initiated the Iranian hostage crisis in which the us broke ties with Iran. this was significant in that it drove Israel and Saudi Arabia into the arms of the Americans for fear that the Iranians and their attempts to export Shiite revolutions throughout the middle east would inspire rebels to topple other middle eastern governments.
Iran Hostage Crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
Reaganomics
The federal economic polices of the Reagan administration, elected in 1981. These policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting. Their goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth.
Iran-Contra scandal
A major scandal of Reagan's second term that involved shipping arms to Iran to free hostages and diverting the money from the sale of these weapons to the Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
NAFTA
A trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico that encourages free trade between these North American countries.
Clinton Impeachment
(1998) Impeached on two charges, one of perjury and one of obstruction of justice. He remained in office and was later acquitted of the charges.
Accused of arranging illegal loans while governor of Arkansas and convicted of obstruction of justice and accused of having relations with a White House intern and perjury
2000 Presidential Election
controversial election bw Al Gore and George Bush, FL was the last state to submit their votes, Bush won FL by a hair, but Gore won popular vote by over 500,000, Gore wanted manual count of FL's votes, but Supreme Court said it violated equal protection for voters
September 11
the date 19 al-Qaeda members hijacked passenger airplanes and used them to destroy a small section of the Pentagon & destroy the twin towers of the World Trade Center in NYC; 3,000 people were killed & 6,000 were injured; (2) these events led to an unsuccessful manhunt for Saudi-born extremist Osama Bin Laden, heightened security in the US, and expanded military action abroad
President George W. Bush
43rd President during 911, declared a global war on terrorism
Afghanistan
this country has been a safe haven for terrorists like Bin Laden. The Taliban government sponsored terrorist training camps and suppressed the people of this country. In response to September 11, 2001, President Bush (43) ordered the invasion of this country.
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