20 terms

7th Grade Science: Genetics - molecular - basic

Sci7 Chapter 3.3 and 3.4
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Walter Fleming
scientist that studied mitosis in 1882
Van Beneden
scientist that studied meiosis in 1887
Weissman
scientist that proposed mechanism for meiosis
meiosis
process in which the number of chromosomes is reduced by half to produce gametes
mitosis
process in which the nucleus divides in two daughter cells containing the same number of chromosomes as the parent
diploid
a cell having two copies of each chromosome; normal cells that have chromosomes from each parent
gamete
a haploid sex cell, formed during meiosis
haploid
a cell having one copy of each chromosome; such as a gamete produced by meiosis
chromosome
threadlike structure in the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
gene
a DNA sequence that codes for specific proteins which helps determine many traits of living things
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; cell molecules used to make chromosomes - the "blueprints" that stay in the nucleus
RNA
ribonucleic acid; cell molecules that are created to carry the code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm (messenger) and that can bring amino acids to the ribosome (transfer) for protein production
nucleotide
The building block of DNA and RNA
messenger RNA (mRNA)
molecule that carries the coded message from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm; mRNA
transfer RNA (tRNA)
molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosome so they can be matched to the code on the mRNA
codon
a specific sequence of three bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid
anticodon
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that pairs with the mRNA codon
replication
the process in which DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division
translation
the process in which the code on mRNA is used to make protein
transcription
the process in which DNA is copied to make RNA
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