29 terms

(Alfred) Reformation: 1500-1700's

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Erasmus?
1466-1536:
The leading humanist of the 16th century, who wanted to reform the church through scholarship. Produced a new Latin translation of the NT, and wrote Diatribe on Free Will as a polemic against Martin Luther's theology, to which Luther responded with Bondage of the Will.
Luther?
1483-1546:
German theologian whose work was the primary catalyst for the Reformation. Recovered the doctrines of justification by faith, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.

THis all started in Oct 31, 1517, when Luther nailed 95 theses or arguments against the catholic chruch.

The top 4 of these would be:
1- Repent means repent - He was arguing with the vulgates latin translation paenitentiam agite, which means, "Go, and do penance."

27- This was againts Tetzel preaching of man made doctrines, "when A coin in the coffin rings, soul from purgatory springs."

62-"The true treasure of the church is the most holy gospel of the glory and grace of God."

92/93 ""Away then with all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Peace, peace,' and there is no peace. Blessed be all those prophets who say to the people of Christ, 'Cross, cross,' and there is no cross."

What he means - While there is no cross for us, there is a cross for Christ. But for us, there's peace.

:In 1518:
We see more of this theology of cross coming out in Heidelberg Disputation dealing with (theo of Glory & THeo of the cross).

And his work on two kinds of righteousness ( in his lectures on the Psalms & Hebrews) > saying we need and alien righteousness.

• Wrote the 95 Theses, Commentary on Galatians, and Bondage of the Will (Erasmus).

• Founded the Lutheran church
• Believed in consubstantiation
• Taught at the University of Wittenberg
• Augustinian monk
Philip Melanchthon?
1497-1560: associate of Luther who systematized Luther's work in the Augsburg Confession and Loci Communes.
Zwingli?
1484-1531:

Swiss reformer. Disputed with the Anabaptists, and taught a "memorial" view of the Lord's Supper.
Calvin?
1509-1564:

reformer who was born in France, and ministered in Geneva, Switzerland. The founder of modern Reformed theology, and author of Institutes of the Christian Religion.
• Born in France
• Ministered in Geneva for two years, then exiled
• Lived in Strasbourg for 3 years, where he was
influenced by Martin Bucer
• Returned to Geneva, where he ministered for the
remaining 23 years of his life.

• Major theological contributions include the Holy Spirit, Presbyterian polity, covenant theology, and the Spiritual presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper.

Geneva: Some of Calivins efforts to make the city into a holy city were a little too zealous. But it became of hub and safe haven for reformation refugees who flocked in from all directions. It was a base that sent out many missionaries.

Institutes: This work quickly became disseminated widely in many different translations to form, except in countries where Lutheranism dominated, the systematic theology of the Reformation.
John Knox?
1514-1572:
Scottish reformer, who led the reformation of the Scottish church, and was heavily influential in the development of Presbyterian worship. Wrote the Scots Confession and the Book of Discipline.
Covenanters?
group of Scots who signed the 1600's National Covenant, protesting the English monarchy's imposition of Episcopal church government and the Book of Common Prayer upon Scotland.
Arminius?
1560-1609:
Dutch theologian who founded Arminianism.

His followers came up with
(1) the decree of salvation applies to foreseen faith to all who believe on Christ and who persevere in obedience and faith;

(2) Christ died for all men; #Universal merits

(3) Due to free will of man this is only partial depravity.

(4) God's saving grace is not irresistible;

(5) it is possible for those who are Christians to fall from grace.

Calvinists refuted these points in the synod of dort. Also, The Belgic Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism were confirmed as standards of orthodoxy, and the Arminians were condemned.
Amyraut and the School of Sumur (Amyraldianism)?
1600's Reformed theologian and school that
attempted to synthesize the Calvinist view of divine election with the Arminian view of unlimited atonement.
Richard Baxter?
1615-1691:
Puritan and author of The Reformed Pastor.
Count Zinzendorf?
1600's pietist and founder of the Moravian Church.
John Owen
1616-1683:
He was Puritan and congregationalist. He was a prolific writer (The Death of Death in the Death of Christ; Communion with God, mortification of sin.)

He sided with parliament during the civil war in England and went with Cromwell in expeditions to Ireland and Scotland in 1649-51 as a chaplain.

He pastored many churches, but his last church was in London.
Scholasticism?
Medieval theological movement that used Aristotelian logic to create a theological system, and embraced reason as a path to knowledge.

• Famous scholastics include Anselm, Peter Abelard, Peter Lumbard, and Thomas Aquinas.

• 3 important aspects of scholasticism:
1. Embraced reason as a path to knowledge

2. Explored the relationship between Scripture and
non-Christian theology, especially Aristotle

3. Used a dialectical method of writing, teaching and
organizing thought
Humanism?
Movement that arose during the Renaissance and extended into the early Reformation that emphasized the value of human individuals and cultures, and encouraged study of the humanities: art, literature, languages, history, etc.

• The greatest humanist was Erasmus

• Humanism exercised great influence on the Reformers, and is one of the major reasons they stressed studying the Scriptures in the original languages.
Augsburg Confession?
Augsburg Confession?
1500's summary of the Lutheran faith written by Philip Melanchthon, and presented to Emperor Charles V.
Second Helvetic Confession?
1500's creedal statement of the Swiss Reformed Church, written by Bullinger, which presents Calvinism as Evangelical Christianity.
Puritanism?
Movement that sought to purify the church of England in the 1600's, especially reacting to the form of Anglican worship. Key Puritans include John Owen and Richard Baxter.
Socinianism?
Heresy of the 15 to 1700's, created by Socinus, which rejected the deity of Christ, his atoning death, and the foreknowledge of God. Taught that Jesus was merely a good teacher and example.

• A forerunner of modern Unitarianism and Open Theism.
What is the Marburg Colloquy?
meeting between Luther and Zwingli in 1529 to resolve their differences regarding the Lord's Supper, which was unsuccessful.

o Luther: consubstantiation: Christ is physically present "in, with and under" the elements. The Lord's Supper is a means of grace that strengthens faith.

o Zwingli: memorial: Christ is in no way present in the elements. The Lord's Supper is an act of remembering Christ, not a means of grace.
The Reformation?
> It was a movement in the (15 to 1600's) to reform the Christian church in response to its theological and moral decay, which led to a formal break between Catholics and
Protestants.

> Stressed salvation by grace through faith alone, the ultimate authority of Scripture, and the priesthood of all believers.

o Began on Oct. 31, 1517 when Luther nailed his 95 Theses to the door at Wittenberg. Continued through the 16th and 17th centuries.

o Major reformers were Martin Luther, John Calvin and Ulrich Zwingli.
What is the Counter-Reformation?
It was the 1500's reform of the Catholic Church and counter-offensive in response to the Reformation. The three primary means were the Council of Trent, the Jesuits, and the Inquisition.

1. Council of Trent: Met from 1545-1563, and laid the groundwork for modern Catholicism.

2. Jesuits: Educators and missionaries who were largely responsible for the Catholic Church taking back much of the ground it lost to Protestants.
• Society of Jesus
• Founded by Ignatius of Loyola

3. The Inquisition: The Catholic Church's systematic fight against heretics through trial and punishment.

•Primary inquisitions against Protestants were in Italy & Spain.
what is the Thirty Years' War?
1618 - 1648:

A war in the 1600's, fought primarily in Germany, which involved most of the countries in Europe. The initial cause of the conflict was the divided allegiance to Catholicism vs. Protestantism in various German territories. But there were many complex political factors that contributed as well.

1. The most devastating European war before the 20th century.

2. Historical context: the Peace of Augsburg stipulated that a territory's allegiance to Catholicism or Protestantism would be chosen by its ruler. This was a poor solution
that prevented many subjects from worshiping according to their beliefs.

3. Results: the war essentially ended in a stalemate. All people in Germany, rulers as well as subjects, were granted the freedom to be Catholics or Protestants.

4. Worldview Ramifications: the enormous conflict over religious beliefs precipitated a spirit of toleration, and was a main contributor to the growing indifference to religion throughout Europe. This set the stage for the Enlightenment.
What is the Heidelberg Catechism?
1563:

catechism composed in Heidelberg, Germany that teaches the doctrines of the Reformation.

1. Commissioned by Prince Fredrick III

2. Primary authors were Olevianus and Ursinus, along with the rest of their theological faculty.
What is the Belgic Confession?
1561:

Reformed confession written in the Netherlands.

o Protested persecution by Catholics, and sought to prove that adherents to the Reformed faith were not rebels, but law-abiding citizens who held to true biblical
teaching.
Canons of Dort?
1618-1619:
document, composed by the Synod of Dort in the Netherlands, which presents the 5 points of Calvinism in response to the Remonstrance.

o The Synod of Dort met from 1618-1619 to resolve the dispute between Calvinism and Arminianism that had arisen in the Netherlands.

o The Synod was composed of delegates from many countries.
What is the Moral influence theory?
Formulated by Peter Abelard (1079-1142) partially in reaction against Anselm's Satisfaction theory

(I love you this much... kill Jesus... nothing else)

Christ's death was a demonstration of God's love that moves us to love God in return and respond with obedience. Thus the result of Christ's death is purely subjective; it only accomplishes something in us.

And gives us a moral example
The Westminster Assembly?
An assembly primarily composed of Puritans that met from 1643-1647 to advise the Long Parliament on reforming the Church of England along Puritan and Presbyterian lines. Produced the Westminster Standards.

* Initially commission to revise the thirty-nine articles of the Anglican church.

* 151 Divines from the Isles. a consensus document drawn up by [Episcopalians, independents (congregationalists), Erastians, and Presbyterians (Scots & English). ]

o Most of their work was undone with the restoration of the monarchy.

o But the Westminster Standards became the greatest and most influential Reformed confession and catechisms.
Pietism?
1600's response to dead orthodoxy in German Lutheranism. Emphasized experientialism, the Bible, holiness, and church reform.

o Major figures include Zinzendorf and Philip Jacob Spenser.
Marrow Controversy?
1600's controversy in the Church of Scotland over the
relationship between the law and the gospel in the conversion process.