AP Euro chapters 11-12 MC
Terms in this set (72)
Before 1815, two revolutions had taken place in Europe: the political one associated
with the French revolution and the Napoleonic empire and an economic one—the
Industrial Revolution. These two revolutions were:
independent of each other.
After the signing of the peace treaty at Vienna in 1815, the process of industrialization:
worked against the conservative European settlement.
All of the following are true about capitalism except:
industrialism and capitalism mean the same thing.
In England, the enclosure acts led to the concentration of land in the hands of a
relatively small class of wealthy landlords which:
raised the productivity of land and of farm labor.
An important political factor which made the Industrial Revolution possible in England
the ascendancy of the property-owning classes in Parliament which assured the passage of
the enclosure acts that were instrumental in bringing about the Agricultural Revolution.
All of the following statements are true regarding England's agricultural revolution
landowners developed new and improved methods of semi-collective cultivation.
All of the following were major incentives to industrialism in Britain except:
government policies and programs to favor industrialization were excluded.
Between about 1800 and 1870, the unchallenged industrial leader of the world was:
Steam engines were first used to:
pump water out of coal mines.
The early factories in England were mainly:
For the most part, the new factories in Britain:
required only unskilled labor.
During the late 1800s, the factories of England paid good wages by the standards for
unskilled workers. The level of wages was:
insufficient for a worker to support a family.
According to the classical economists' "iron law of wages," _____.
if workers received more than a subsistence wage, they would have more children who
would consume the surplus
Classical economics, as propounded by Adam Smith and others, maintained that:
the free market and free trade should reign everywhere.
Romanticism, a literary and artistic movement during the first decades of the
nineteenth century, _____.
insisted on the value of feeling as well as of reason
During the first half of the nineteenth century, classical liberalism entailed all of the
voting rights for all adult males.
Most nineteenth century radicals:
demanded fundamental changes, without regard for history or local customs.
Before 1848, most socialists supported all of the following except:
a violent revolution to overthrow the exploiting middle class.
A major criticism of the private enterprise system made by pre-1848 socialists was that:
it was aimless, chaotic, and outrageously unjust. it gave too much economic power to wealthy owners. it promoted competition rather than harmony, coordination, and organization.
The most significant form of socialism before 1848 was found among the working
The collaborative work of John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor suggested that:
men and women were inherently equal. society would benefit by including women in public life.
Political nationalism was an ideology based upon the belief that:
each nation should have its own sovereign state.
Joseph Mazzini, one of the best known nationalist philosophers, _____.
believed that nationality was a holy cause in which the most generous and humane qualities
For Hegel (1770-1831), the state was the "march of God through the world." Thus, he
a strong state was the embodiment of reason and liberty.
Friedrich List, in his National System of Political Economy, _____.
called for high tariff walls to protect the development of German industry
Post the year 1815, conservatism remained strong. Thus, building on the ideas of
institutions should be changed by gradual adaptation.
In 1815, a "white terror" in France broke out that led to the:
murder of Bonapartists, Protestants, and Republicans.
The famous Carlsbad Decrees of 1819:
were a check on the growth of liberal and nationalist ideas.
In the years immediately following the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Britain:
ferociously repressed dissent, on one occasion, killing and wounding hundreds of peaceful
In 1820, the governments of _____ were overthrown easily by revolutions.
Spain and Naples
Despite the reactionary policies of many European governments, the revolutionary
governments of Spanish America maintained their independence because of
_____objection to military intervention.
In the 1820s, the United States supported the independence of the new South American
the Monroe Doctrine's warning against European intervention in the Americas.
The 1825 Decembrist Revolt in Russia was:
a short-lived mutiny of Russian soldiers over the successor to Alexander.
The wall of reaction created in Europe by Metternich and other conservatives really
collapsed with the:
July Revolution of 1830 in France.
In 1830, Charles X provoked a revolution in France by:
depriving the upper bourgeois class of the vote and restricting the electorate to the
The French revolution of 1830:
ended with the monarchy of Louis Philippe, who shared power with a chamber elected by a
small percentage of adult males.
Delacroix's famous painting "Liberty Leading the People" illustrates:
a romantic, classless view of the revolution.
Britain may have been on the verge of a violent revolution in the 1830s. One crucial
factor that helped to avoid a revolution was:
the institution of Parliament.
On the eve of the reform of the House of Commons in 1832, _____.
the new factory towns elected no representatives to the Parliament
The British Reform Bill of 1832:
gave the opportunity for voting to the industrial towns and the middle classes.
The Poor Law of 1834:
forced people to work under conditions that laborers found unattractive and even oppressive.
Chartists in England:
were primarily interested in political reforms like universal male suffrage.
All of the following are true about the Revolutions of 1848 except:
the nearly simultaneous fall of governments throughout Europe was due in part to an
international revolutionary conspiracy.
The main consequence of the Revolutions of 1848 was:
to strengthen the more conservative forces in Europe.
The February 1848 revolution in France was provoked by:
the government's refusal to grant voting rights to people below the wealthier middle classes.
In 1848, the French Provisional Government adopted:
a system of National Workshops.
For many French people, the Bloody June Days of 1848:
confirmed their hatred of the bourgeois class. proved that capitalism could only survive by shooting laborers in the streets. left them certain that they had escaped a ghastly upheaval.
In France, during the Bloody June Days of 1848, _____.
the working class districts of Paris revolted but were ruthlessly crushed by the army
In 1848, all of the following were true of militant Chartists in England except:
they surrendered to the Duke of Wellington's 70,000 constables.
In 1848, Louis Napoleon owed his election as president of France to:
the fame of his uncle and the Napoleonic Legend.
On December 2, 1851, Louis Napoleon seized power in France, subsequently
proclaiming himself emperor. He was able to acquire supreme power for all of the
following reasons except:
he executed tens of thousands of opponents.
The people of the Austrian empire:
consisted of about a dozen nationalities or language groups.
The Habsburgs were able to suppress the Hungarian rebellion against their rule only
promising the Hungarians full autonomy inside the empire.
A decisive factor in the defeat of the revolutions of 1848 in the Austrian empire was:
the immunity of the Austrian armies to nationalist aspirations.
The post-1848 Bach system in the Austrian empire:
rigidly centralized the government.
The most difficult question for the all-German Frankfurt Assembly to resolve was:
defining what territories constituted "Germany."
After the Habsburgs refused their offer, the Frankfurt Assembly offered the hereditary
leadership of a new German empire to the king of Prussia who rejected it because:
it had not been offered to him by the German princes.
The greatest accomplishment of the Revolution of 1848 was:
the ascendancy of constitutionalism throughout Europe.
All of the following are true about the influential philosophy of positivism except:
it contributed to the growth of archaic theology as a branch of learning.
The term Realpolitik means:
governments should not be guided by ideology but should follow their practical interests and
meet facts and situations as they arise.
Marxist ideology drew upon the following sources:
French revolutionism, British industrialism, and German philosophy.
Marx and Engels' Communist Manifesto, published in January 1848, _____.
aroused very little response in 1848
Marx adopted from the British political economists the subsistence theory of wages,
condemned the working class to perpetual poverty.
Marx adopted Hegel' dialectic, but Marx differed from Hegel in one vital respect since
Hegel did not contend that:
material conditions were the primary determinants of social change.
According to Marx, in the universal struggle between proletarian and bourgeois, _____.
proletarians who try to improve their economic conditions betray their class interest
One of Marxism's greatest advantages in winning adherents was its:
claim to be scientific.
limited democratic participation in the government.
Elections to the French Second Empire's Legislative Body were:
carefully managed to limit opposition to official candidates.
Baron Haussmann's new Paris was a city with wide avenues designed to do all of the
preserve the glories of Paris' medieval past.
Economic development under Napoleon III included:
the invention of investment banking.
Napoleon III's concessions to the working classes included the:
right to strike.
The fall from power of Napoleon III was due to:
defeat in war.