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refined secular, rugged warrior, kings and monarchs


urban life, military fighting, diplomacy, peasant life


chivalric code

the hierarchal feudal social order was defined and elaborated in unwritten rules of conduct, guidelines known as...


while codes served the noble class life was very different for the...

rise of towns

the... countered the dominance of the feudal system


the french monarchy was established by the... rulers in central france with paris as its central city

phillip IV

by 1285 france became the most powerful feudal kingdom in europe with the reign of...

judicial reforms/advisory councils

the english monarchy differed because of the... and the... won by the feudal barons

norman invasion, magna carta, parliment

what were the three major events that determined the history of the english monarchy


the conflict with the... undermined the growth of the holy roman empire

lay investure

was the appointment of priest bishops and archbishops by local lords

concordat of words/popes spiritual authority/emperors secular authority

this issue was discussed and settled at the... in 1122. what was the result of the meeting.


the papal monarchy resembled the feudal monarchies except it claimed to be guided by the ideal of...


a practice called... the buying and selling of church offices meant that the positions often went to the highest bidder

college of cardinals

in 1059 the... was founded to elect popes

innocent III

the most powerful pontiff during the middle ages was... whose aim was to unite europe under the papal banner

papal bull

pope boniface VIII ruined the diplomacy and power established. he issued the... a proclamation of papal superiority over all secular rulers


at the fourth lateran council of 1215 the pope officially proclaimed the... as the outward sign of Gods grace and the only way to heaven

baptism confirmation penance marriage

four outward signs of sacraments

fransicans and dominicans

the two major mendicant or begging orders were the... and the...


the beguines and the beghards won approval from the religious authorities while the group known as the... or also the... were condemned as heretics


many heretics were tried by the... and burned at the stake

apocalypse and plague

the late middle ages have been defined as the calamitous centuries because of the... and...


the bacillus disease, carried over by fleas on rats spread rapidly through europe killing more than a... of europea 70 million people

dance of death

due to the black death the ages leading image became the...


by 1450 the kings of... defeated and replaced the french rulers in sardenia sicily naples southern italy

ottoman turks/constantinople

in the middle east from 1347 on the... conquered greece and the balkan peninsula. by 1453 they had conquered the byzantine capital.

england and france

... during the 14th century fought the so called hundred years war


the chief consequence of plagues, famine, and wars was...

florence, genoa, and venice

... became the largest cities in europe during the 14th century

higher standard of living

the immediate consequence of the demographic crises increased social unrest and caused revolts but the long term effect was a... for the survivors

movable type

the new industries such as rag paper, salt production, weapons, gun powder, suction pump and other hydraulics and the spinning wheel increased productivity. the most significant technological innovation of the late middle ages was the...


the... court attracted leading artist and humanist during the thirteenth century

Joan of arc

... helped the french to be victorious in the hundred years war, she became a heroine and a roman catholic saint later in time


the... kings after the hundred years war increased their territories by controlling the dukes of burgundy, by intelligent marriage arrangements, and by conquering lands previously controlled by england


in england the... represented the interest of nobles and the towns people. it also helped curb the papal power in england

henry VII

1485-1509 successfully weakened the parliment control and with the help of advisors and diplomacy became a powerful monarch


followed the set pattern by the french and english monarchies while instead... remained divided into combative states

schism and heresay/avignon

the papal monarchy after pope Innocent IIIs success slowly declined and during the 14th century it was plagued by... the papal seat moved from rome to... in southern france

council of constance/pisan council

the great schism in the catholic church was finally resolved at the... 1414-1418 which deposed the avignon pope ignored the antipope who had been elected at the... and elected a new pope, martin v.


the 15th and 16th centuries popes failed to address pressing... concerns. they devoted their time to secular issues and acted like secular kings

town dwellers, bankers, merchants

although the church remained the principal financial supporter of the arts, rich... were emerging as the new patrons of the arts


the term renaissance means...


during the renaissance italian artist and scholars looked back at the ancient... and... writings for inspiration


new interpretations of what happened during the renaissance reflected a change in... and the... none in politics and society


in the early renaissance the principle patrons of the arts were the... cities

disputes among italys city states
shift in maritime trade
french invasion in florence

why did this patronage of the arts shift during the high renaissance

finished woolens

what was the leading commercial trade that made the city states so prosperous during the high middle age


what caused the economic monopoly to change

venice milan florence papal states naples

name the five dominant italian city states

ferrara and modena

name the two smaller city states that we successful


the ruling families and elitist factions that emerged and took political control were called the...

guilds, business leaders, middle class

in the 15th century the power of the... ... and... lost control especially in venice milan and florence

technology changed weapons
battles were fought with mercenary troops
soldiers of fortune sold their military expertise
diplomacy as a peaceful alternative to arms
italian regimes began sending representatives to other states

how did the warfare change during this time period

peace of lodi

one of the negotiations signed by milan venice and florence in 1454 was the...

charles VIII

the above negotiation fell apart in 1494 when... of france entered italy conquered florence and other areas

fall of constantinople
portugals opening of the sea route around africa to india
columbus' voyage

what three major events changed the course of the economic power and trade of the city states

literature and arts

the signori families used the wealth to educate their sons cultivating their taste in...

pope alexander VI

men and women exchanged philosophical ideas with a certain amount of freedom in the early renaissance. the most noted and powerful women during at this time was lucrezia borgia, the illegitimate daughter of...


the most prominent city state was... this city became the center of the early renaissance

republic, oligarchy, family

florences political system evolved from a... to... to... rule

invasion of charles VIII
iconoclastic crusade

what two events were major reason for the decline of florences dominance

a tattered christendom reunited
renaissance popes back in power
popes engaged in war
brought artistic riches to the church
patronized renaissance culture

what happened to the papacy after the council of constance


the center of culture shift from florence to... during the high renaissance

france england spain

name the new sovereign nations that emerged in the 16th century

spain and holy roman empire

charles I/V was ruler of... and...

charles VIII

florence was taken by the french king... in 1494

venice, holy roman empire, papacy

who rallied together to drive out the french

charles I/V, martin luther, charlemagne

during medieval times who pursued the dream of s united christendom

german father
spainish mother
grandson of maximilian HRE

what was charles I/V unique family position

charles I/V

who ruled the largest empire the world has ever known

papal monarchy

who led the protestant revolution in germany giving without intending to the HRE principalities advantages over charles I/V

mediterranean to atlantic

the center of commerce during 15th and 16th centuries shifted from the... sea to the... ocean


the population in the 15th and 16th centuries increased rapidly and shifted from... to... areas


in 1527 charles I/V troops ran riot raping looting and killing in the city of...


the campaigns of charles I/V were financed by wealthy...

tobacco, cotton, cocoa/gold, silver

the new world agricultural products were... the prices soared due to the raw materials such as... and...


due to a need for increased work force another large trade was...

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