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Terms in this set (24)

(ch1)Should be happiest now bc best quality of life now than ever
-qualities for good life= time spent with loved ones, physical and mental health, and interesting things to do
3 basic happiness theories
-Emotional state theory -Hedonism=happiness as pleasure
-Life Satisfaction (based on judgement)

(ch2) Happiness=favorable emotional condition
3 elements of happi
-State of attunement (feeling safe and secure)
-Engagement with a situation (enjoying activities)
-An endorsement of life (feeling that life is positively good)
o Tranquility as a cornerstone of happiness
o nonconscious aspects of emotional condition complicate measuring happiness

(ch3) Life Satisfaction=hard to value using subjective standards
-gives individual responsibility for own happiness
-tracks ind people's values (which vary)

(ch4) Measuring Happiness, like depression and anxiety
need to ask 3 questions
-What is the study measuring?
-Do the groups being compared tend to answer happiness questions differently?
-If the study claims that a group of people is happy, what is the evidence for this?
Easy to find relative happiness bw groups, but not actual happiness

(ch5) 5 Sources of Happ= Security, Outlook, Autonomy, Relationships, Skilled and meaningful activity
-context of life and ability to act individualistically is important

(ch6) Well-Being= eudaimonia, complete life of virtuous activity (both moral virtue and human excellence)
-Aristotle=virtue benefits us, but right values are all relative to population in question

(ch7) Virtue and Meaning emphasize morality, acting and living well
-happy virtues=friendliness, wit, resilience
-key to living well=connection to people
-Happiness=part of human well-being and beyond it; important to act well

(ch8) 2 parts to the Good Life
-whether life is good for you
-whether the way you lead it is good (in terms of well-being and virtue)
Best way to lead a good life=conclude life with a favorable balance sheet
(intro)Herodotus, Solon, and Croesus
-Tellus the Athenian and Cleobis and Biton are the happiest bc of health, prosperity, familial harmony, noble acheivements, and public esteem
-Happiness= characterization of entire life that can only be reckoned at death
-Eudaimon= flourishing and favored life
-need luck and good fortune to withstand wrath of gods

(ch1) Earthly happiness is the highest good
-Bruckner "happiness is goal of democracy"
-Happiness not an emotion but a complete life through luck and earning it
-It will require external goods, friends, wealth, etc.
-Virtue is stable and controlling aspect but not enough on its own to pursue happiness

(ch2) Perpetual Felicity in heaven
-roman concept of felicitus=worldly pleasures and materials as signs from gods
-makarios=blessed/happy in Greek
-Hebrew asher= blessed/happy
-Medieval Christianity=unhappiness was natural condition of human state
-suffering on earth lead to happiness in heaven (hope)
-today=earthly unhappiness and perfect happiness in heaven are closer together

(Ch3) A Modern Rite
-Mid 17th-mid 19th century, human beings begin to set their sights on the earthly end of happiness in a way that they hadn't previously. Human beings expect that happiness is what we expect to get out of life. People come to expect more out of life.
- Prior to this period, no one thought of happiness as the default end of human beings/something they deserve or ought to have by virtue of simply being human
We have a right to pursue/obtain happiness. If they are not happy then there is something wrong.
- God didn't create people to be unhappy and then die.
-New idea: God created the world good and wants us to flourish in it. Theologians emphasize this/ God's desire for our happiness.
-Thirty Years' war: ⅓ population killed,
First effort to design laws of war and try to make it more civilized/keep it within bounds so it doesnt spill in to civilian populations.
-Worldly attitude: This world is the place where one will flourish or not, this is not a thoroughfare between past and future.
- This view is incredibly liberating on the one hand, it makes human suffering a problem to be solved by politics, not something to be accepted.

Conclusion
(Ch. 1)- The Divided Self
- Uses metaphor that the soul is the chariot and the mind is the reins in control
- "Reason and emotion must work together to create intelligent behavior but emotion does most of the work"
- Humans pay too much attention to "conscious verbal thinking"
(Ch. 2)- Changing Your Mind
- Emotions can cause thoughts and thoughts can create motions, it's a two way street
- Average levels of happiness vary depending on a person's "emotional style"
- Meditation a way to change automatic thought processes, which can reduce negative thoughts if done consistently
- Cognitive therapy a psych method of breaking feedback loops in which negative thoughts cause negative feelings
- Drugs like prozac change brain chemistry by altering problematic traits to shortcut to proper mental functioning
(Ch. 3)- Reciprocity with a Vengeance
- The Golden rule: reciprocity
- Humans follow tit for tat rule, I do something for you, you do something for me
(Ch. 4) - The Faults of Others
- Machiavellian(devious, cunning) tit for tat to advance in life
- Most people think they are good and are motivated by good reasons
- People think they are more generous than others
- We see faults in others but are blind to our own
- If we understand our flaws we can become less biased, moralistic and less inclined to conflict
(Ch. 5)- Pursuit of Happiness
- Money & power can't buy happiness
- Adaptation principle- we are happier after becoming paralyzed than winning $20M
- A true stoic is unaffected by external factors
- Happiness formula: Set point+Life Condition+Voluntary Activities
- Flow fully engages your attention, gratifications lead to flow
(Ch. 6)- Love & Attachments
- Monkey experiment: Monkeys without mothers were more attracted to the stuffed monkey feeding them, than a bottle on a wire "contract comfort"
- Greek tale of Hephaestusus-> what do human beings want from each other, to become one
- Epicureans: based on pursuit of pleasure, value friendship and oppose romantic love
(Ch. 7)- The Uses of Adversity
- People grow from suffering unless given ptsd
- "What doesn't kill you makes you stronger"-Neitszche
- Adversity hypothesis:
Weak- "adversity can lead to growth, joy strength and self-improvement"
Strong- people must endure adversity in order to grow, highest level of development from people who have faced adversity
(Ch. 8)- The Felicity of Virtue
- "It is impossible to live the pleasant life without also living sensibly, nobly and justly, and it is impossible to live sensibly, nobly and justly without living pleasantly" (Epicurus)
- Kant deontology: ethical people must respect duties and obligations even when their actions lead to bad outcomes
- Easier to make character strengths stronger than improve our weak ones
(Ch. 9)- Divinity With or Without God
- The perception of sacredness and divinity is a basic feature of the human mind
- Divinity and disgust must be kept separate
- "if relgious people are right in believing that religion is the source of their greatest happiness, then maybe the rest of us who are looking for happiness and meaning can learn something from them"
(Ch. 10)- Happiness Comes from Between
- Vital engament: the relationship between person and environment
- Meaning of life: author believes there are answers to the question of the purpose within life by understanding rational and irrational human nature
(Ch. 11) - Conclusion
- "The ancient idea of Yin and Yang turns out to be the wisest idea of all. We need the perspectives of ancient religion and modern science; of east and west; even of liberal and conservative. Words of wisdom really do flood over us, but only by drawing from many sources can we become wise."
(Foreword) Humans not good as predicting what will make us happy
-future selves hard to please or are we bad at predicting future desires

(ch1) "Human being is the only animal that thinks about the future"
-conscious experience=greatest achievement of human brain ("anticipation machines" that "make future")
-includes imagination (greatest), actual sight, memories
-Nexting= immediate unconscious predicting from one's brain; almost instinctual
-Conscious long range planning= frontal lobe allows humans to think about future (damage to it disrupts this)
-Planning brings pleasure in 3 ways
-Protective (anticipating unpleasant events can minimize their impact)
-Motivational (by imagining unpleasant tomorrows we avoid risky behaviors)
-Empowering (desire to control our experiences and exercise influence of our fundamental needs)

(ch2) Defining Happiness involves 3 things
-Emotional Happiness=subjective experience, state of being, pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain
-Moral Happiness=state we feel when we do our duty, live with virtue, and live up to our potential
-Judgement Happiness=when we express our belief about the merit of things, without emotional or moral happiness
-Happiness=Subjective so comparing experiences of true happiness between 2 people is explained in either 2 ways
-description of happiness using different vocabulary
-description of happiness using different experiences
ex. sip of water to dehydrated person vs normal

(ch3) Experience means participating in an event
-Awareness means observing an event
-we can experience something without being aware of experiencing it
examples= daydreaming, daily mindless routines
-Also can have feelings and not be aware that we're experiencing them
examples=Alexithymia (condition of having feelings without knowing it)

(ch4) Cant predict future happiness of either ourselves or others
-can imagine a future but can't know for sure
-shortcomings from the past apply to predicting future
-store brief snippets of emotion about an event and recall those instead of the entirety of the event
-sometimes gaps are filled with things that never happened
-Realism=seeing whats out there
-Idealism=psychology combines with what we see to create the perception of whats out there
example=2 people seeing the same thing but have 2 different conclusions

(ch5)When imagining future, we fail to consider factors that do not exist yet
-visualize future with only the factors that are present today
-when making a selection, we consider options' positive attributes
-when deselecting an option, we consider its negative attributes

(ch6) Bad at predicting future bc our future selves will see the world differently than we see it today (hard to imagine being hungry again after thanksgiving)
-brains imagine future from drawing on memories
-people unhappy today dont believe they will be happy tomorrow
-we cannot feel good about an imaginary future when we are busy feeling bad in the actual present

(ch7) Variety is the spice of life in which new experiences are usually enjoyable
-repetition leads to habituation lowering the pleasure favorite foods, movies, and activities
-passage of time (weeks to months) between experiences increase pleasure

(ch8) Most people persevere after traumatic events and find a positive view on an unalterable event
-We experience the world as a mixture of stark reality and comforting illusion (balance each other out)

(ch9) We are good at predicting how painful and future negative event will be but not good at predicting how resilient and adaptive we will be when it happens
-tragic event triggers our psychological immune system which helps us rationalize, cope with, and adjust to the event
-When we cant change our experience, we look for ways to change our views on the experience
-explaining the situation and its causal factors helps cope and accept event
-random surprises are more meaningful
-Unexplained events are impactful bc rare events have greater emotional impact and they are mysterious and uncertainty can preserve and prolong our happiness

(ch10) Most of our knowledge is second hand knowledge but we rarely take other's experiences for the absolute truth (learn the hard way)
-selective memory forces bad predictions
-tend to remember uncommon things (9/11) and not the most likely of times
-the ending of an event colors our whole experience of that event
-Thus, cant predict future happiness based on past experience

(ch11) Best way to predict our feelings about an event tomorrow is to see how others experiencing it today feel
-dangerous to accept bad advice or reject good advice
-determining quality of advice depends on Accuracy (how close to reality is that belief), Popular (how wide spread is that belief), and Current (is your belief about your experience happening now)
-using others to help us think about the future can help us overcome the mistakes our brains make
(ch1) Utilitarianism=right action produces maximum happiness for overall population (goal of politics)

(ch2) examines "equivalence between the sensations produced via the nervous system and money"
William Stanley Jevons -economics could no longer ignore psychology
-Homo economicus="miserable vision of humans who are constantly calculating, pricing things, and neurotically pursuing own personal interests"
-he turned the market into one vast mind reading device

(ch3) Davies attacks psychology
-psychology and consumerism are intertwined and codependent in America
-calls behavioral psychology "virtually anti-psychological"
-behavioral psychologist John Watson earns 4x more at ad agency in 1920

(ch4) Psychology and Capitalism
-managers and policymakers create "Happiness Industry" with science on workplace happiness
-Benthem (pleasure w/o pain) happiness came from certain activities and choice
-Jevons (econ) and Watson (behavioral psych) exploited individuals into making choices by dangling a pleasurable carrot in front of them for money

(ch5)Davies thinks neoliberalism is a "depressive-competitive disorder" that comes about bc utility maximization (in money or physical symptoms) is privatized
-Thatcher and Regan implement neoliberalism, competition, and management of happiness

(ch6) Interweaving of science of happiness with social media innovation creates unique problems in neoliberal world
-Facebook makes people feel worse about their lives
-people attempting to escape relentless self-reliance and reflection turn to social media which further deepens the discomfort brought upon them by the extreme individualism of neoliberalism

(ch7)Explosion of happiness and wellness data
-new surveillance and predicative shopping in which our decisions are made for us by algorithms without our permission

(ch8) Advertising=mass behavioral manipulation
-"pursuit of health and of money should remain in entirely different spheres