cmf 382 exam 2
Terms in this set (180)
Studios of the classical Hollywood period had no qualms about ordering male actors with star potential to undergo cosmetic surgery and change hair color in order to ________.
maintain the studio's ideal kind of masculinity
With the exception of works by two noted directors, Alfred Hitchcock and Vincent Korda, most British films of the 1930s and 1940s had the same visual style as ________ films.
________ was an art movement of the early 20th century which sought to manifest subjective human feelings and emotions through a combination of objective design elements.
What usually determines the design of costumes used in a film?
The film's setting.
Although each thing that is seen within a shot may not have a meaning in and of itself, it is the ________ of these things that provide overall meaning.
When a character in a movie handles a tennis racket, a glass of beer, or a shovel, the object is known as a
A director chooses the ________ frame when the characters in the story are restricted in their movements, often due to outside forces, such as social or economic.
In order to tightly control a film's visual elements during production, directors rely on:
the construction of studio sets
How did Orson Welles maintain the illusion that the sets photographed in Citizen Kane (1941) were authentic?
He shot them from high angles and low angles to reveal the walls and ceilings.
Darren Aronofsky's movie The Black Swan (2010), about an obsessive young dancer's quest to become a great ballerina, is ________ movie.
Not only can the surfaces, textures, sights, and sounds of a movie convey meaning but directors also use those elements to trigger an emotional response based on each viewer's ________.
memory and experience
The rise of ________ in 1930s Germany inadvertently fueled more complex design concepts for Hollywood films.
In Edward Scissorhands (1990), the unusual costume and makeup of the title character emphasizes his ________.
Two key aspects of composition are ________
framing and kinesis
The choice of costumes worn by actors in a movie can contribute to________.
the telling of a movie's story
The contrast of light and dark was used in The Night of the Hunter (1955) to reinforce ________
impending evil that will affect the film's characters
Which of the following falls under the supervision of a movie's production designer?
The costumes, set construction, and hairstyling
During the first twenty years of moviemaking, directors preferred to shoot on ________ locations.
________ is a lighting technique that uses deep gradations and subtle variations of lights and darks.
The colors and textures of interiors, furniture, draperies, and curtains are aspects of ________
Although attention to historical detail was applied to the design of Scarlett O'Hara's green dress in Gone with the Wind (1939), some authenticity was most likely sacrificed in order to:
appeal to the audience
Although much attention was paid to the authenticity of historical costumes during the studio era, hairstyles were often based on ________.
modified contemporary looks
What are, arguably, the only two fundamental styles of film design?
realistic and fantastic
What genre of American film of the 1930s was most influenced by the highly stylized German cinema of the early 1920s?
Luchino Visconti's use of ________ in The Leopard (1963) makes the audience an active participant in the action.
moving cameras and changing angles
Of the various elements of composition, which one directly implies a point of view?
In Gravity (2013), director Alfonso Cuarón used ________ to help audiences experience the vastness of space.
IMAX 3D format
The planning of the placement and movement of figures and camera is a process known as ________.
Sets are often built on a ________, which is a windowless, soundproofed, interior shooting environment.
One of the first and most important collaborators hired by a director is the ________, who helps develop the overall look of a movie.
Director Robert Wiene used hand-tinted colors in The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920) to ________.
The spatial and temporal ________ of a film is the environment in which the narrative takes place.
Of the many personnel on a film shoot, who is responsible for aspects of visual continuity during the production process?
In addition to their acting skills, Oscar-winners Charlize Theron and Johnny Depp owe some of their onscreen success to the contributions of ________.
art department professionals
Although facial painting and prosthetics were used for the face of the Joker in The Dark Night (2008), the transformation of Harvey Dent into Two-Face was created by ________.
a process involving digital make up
The first great German expressionist film was ________.
The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1920)
During the production of a movie, light is controlled and manipulated by the ________ to achieve expressive effects.
When preparing a popular star for a role, why would a studio be reluctant to drastically alter the star's look?
There was a risk of jeopardizing the star's image.
Is Sleepy Hollow (1999) an open or a closed film?
F. W. Murnau's innovative use of ________ and subjective shots in The Last Laugh (1924) intensified the audience's involvement in onscreen events.
the moving camera
In addition to the casting of nonprofessional actors, one of the signature practices of the Italian neorealism movement was ________.
shooting on location
Movies such as Alexander Nevsky (1938) and The Grand Budapest Hotel (2014) use various visual elements to:
convey themes and ideas to the audience
During the classical Hollywood studio era, the mise-en-scène of each studio's movies was often created through ________.
a predetermined formula
________ is the process by which the look of settings, props, lighting, and actors is determined.
How did the production team of Sherlock Holmes (2009) create the Victorian-era world of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's private detective?
Through a combination of existing English locations and computer-generated imagery.
What led to the rise of interior shooting?
Cost incentives and the evolution of larger studios
Of the many things studio-era actors used to create an appealing screen image, two of the most personal and important were ________.
makeup and hair
Where were the basic styles of film design first established?
The open frame is generally used in ________ films
When designing costumes for a futuristic sci-fi movie, designers must take into account the social structure and values of an imaginary society as well as ________.
the audience's expectation of what the future should look like
The visual style of Sleepy Hollow (1999) features many characteristics of what two genres?
horror and gothic
What two contradictory forces had the greatest impact on Soviet filmmakers of the 1920s and 1930s?
documentary style and dynamic editing
Technological advances in filmmaking and the increasing domination of ________ have changed the way movies are made.
computer generated special effects
The kinesis of objects and figures within the frame and of the frame itself are both aspects of ________.
The combination of lighting, color, the movement of actors, and other visual elements contained by the ________ contribute to the meaning of a shot.
When he was making the "Apu" trilogy, renowned Indian filmmaker Satyajit Ray was strongly influenced by what post-World War II film?
Vittorio De Sica's The Bicycle Thieves (1948)
The responsibilities of the production designer have evolved over the years because of ________.
changes in technology across all phases of production
Occasionally mise-en-scène can be so overblown that it alienates audiences, as was the case with ________.
the great gatsby 2013
The organization, distribution, balance, and general relationship of actors and objects within the space of each shot is called ________.
In film analysis, the term mise-en-scène refers to:
everything the audience sees, hears, and experiences while viewing a movie
To reveal the inner thoughts of Nicole Kidman's character Anna in Birth (2004), the director combined what two cinematographic tools?
The close-up and the long take.
When mixed together in varying degrees, the three primary additive colors, consisting of ________, can produce all the other colors in the spectrum.
red green and blue
The compositional principle that divides the frame horizontally and vertically in order to visualize the height, width, and depth of cinematic space is called ________.
the rule of thirds
Although the director's vision shapes a movie's mise-en-scène, the cinematographer must make decisions about:
how to photograph the movie
________ POV is when the camera is able to go virtually anywhere and see anything, often shooting its subject from a high angle.
When an extreme long shot shows a wide view of a location and provides some background information, it is also known as a(n) ________.
To visually imply a character's power and superiority, the camera is traditionally placed at ________ in relation to that character.
a low angle
The cinematographer is also known as the ________.
director of photography
One of the most difficult challenges cinematographers face when filming traditional two-dimensional imagery is ________
creating the illusion of depth
The change in focus from one subject to another during a shot is known as a ________.
________ is a lighting technique often associated with horror and film noir.
The ________ describes the relationship between the subject being photographed and the level and height of the camera.
A ________ is the basic building block of a movie.
How did director Rouben Mamoulian and cinematographer George Folsey create the illusion of spatial depth in Applause (1929)?
They created lines of movement from the background toward the viewer
The opening of Orson Welles's Touch of Evil (1958) features a lengthy, continuous ________ shot.
Despite advances in digital media, most feature film productions are shot ________.
with traditional film stock
Which color film system recorded images on three separate strips of film simultaneously?
What technique keeps all three planes of the film frame in focus?
In the 1960s, a popular way of moving the camera in the cinéma vérité style of filmmaking was done by a ________.
________ is a CGI technique that requires an actor to wear a bodysuit fitted with reflective markers.
According to legendary cinematographer Gordon Willis, the director of photography (DP) must:
create a look that fits the story
Which European director referred to the moving camera as "the unchained camera" and is known for pioneering its use?
F. W. Murnau
The four basic properties of lighting are ________.
source, quality, direction, and style
Up until the 1950s, the standard aspect ratio of most 35mm Hollywood films was ________, which is known as the Academy ratio.
When framing a shot, cinematographers are limited by the aspect ratio, which is the ________.
relationship between the frame's width to its height
A colored filter placed before the lens is often used to correct ________.
A film stock's speed refers to its ________.
sensitivity to light
What system provides the distinguishing quality of black and white film stock?
What lighting style and other production values did Warner Bros. use to distinguish itself from the other studios?
Somber, low-key lighting in black and white movies.
Since 1968, almost all Hollywood feature films have used ________ film stock.
The use of color film stock for John Ford's The Searchers (1956) was probably due less to aesthetics than to ________.
Why are black and white films more often closely associated with gritty realism than are color films?
Historically, black and white images have been used for documentaries and newspaper photographs
The selective use of a ________ lens during the filming of Sunset Boulevard (1950) captured images that relate to our day-to-day experience of depth and perception.
Depth of field refers to the distances in front of the camera and its lens in which the subjects are________.
in apparent sharp focus
The main source of illumination used in three-point lighting is the ________.
One camera position and everything associated with it is called ________.
a set up
Hollywood became the center of American film production in part because of ________.
the abundance of sunshine
Wide-angle, normal, and telephoto lenses with fixed focal lengths are known as ________ lenses.
The ________ lens tends to exaggerate the perceived spatial relationship between the subject and the camera.
The long and medium shot are names that refer to ________.
the implied distance between the camera lens and the subject being filmed
How did cinematographer John J. Mescall enhance Dr. Pretorius's evil nature in Bride of Frankenstein (1935)?
With lighting sourced from below the actor.
The effective use of ________ is often used to separate a subject from the background and add depth to a shot.
Adjusting the aperture of a camera lens changes the ________.
amount of light that passes through the lens
The vertical movement of a camera mounted on a gyroscopic head of a stationary tripod is a ________.
The basic goal of most special effects is to create ________.
an illusion of reality
In Steven Spielberg's Jurassic Park (1993), scale was exploited to ________.
create a sense of wonder and suspense
Cinematographic properties of the shot controlled by the DP include film stock, lighting, and ________.
The three factors that influence the length of any shot are the screenplay, the editing, and the ________.
Which is the best-known lighting convention in feature filmmaking?
the three point system
The use of ________ during filming can diffuse the light and soften harsh shadows created by direct sunlight.
If you are a cinematographer and the director asks you to photograph just the lips of an actor, what type of shot is she asking for?
extreme close up
To imply that the onscreen world is somehow out of balance, filmmakers may photograph a subject with a ________, which tilts the camera from its normal horizontal and vertical position.
dutch angle shot
The two most basic kinds of artificial lights used for film production are ________.
focusable spotlights and floodlights
The additive process to render color images on film stock was replaced by the ________ process.
Why is it unusual that protagonist Marshal Will Kane in High Noon (1952) wears a black hat?
Dark tones are traditionally associated with antagonists
A ________ shot is when the camera is mounted on a dolly to move smoothly along with the action.
Shots with duration between one and ten minutes that allow the preservation of real space and real time are called ________.
During production, the crew most closely associated with the camera consists of ________.
the camera operator and the first and second AC
Within one shot of The Birth of a Nation (1915), D. W. Griffith moved the camera from a Civil War battle to a mother and children and back in order to ________.
show the horror of battle along with the misery it creates for civilians
The________ is the person responsible for powering the lights and other camera-related equipment during production.
An actor's popularity is judged primarily by box office receipts and ________.
Who has the most control over sculpting an actor's performance?
Which of the following is most likely to draw an audience to a movie?
a famous actor
What distinguished Cary Grant from other Hollywood actors during the studio era?
He decided which movies he was going to appear in.
What is the fundamental difference between a film star and a film actor?
A film star sparkles on screen; a film actor is a strong craftsman.
In which of the following films did the directors insist the actors not stray from the script?
Ethan and Joel Coen's Fargo (1996).
Johnny Depp's acting career is unusual because he has attained star status:
without any fixed persona
In Lars von Trier's Dogville (2003), actor Paul Bettany frequently:
breaks the fourth wall
What is the biggest difference between the careers of Bette Davis, a major star during the studio era, and Nicole Kidman, a top star of today?
Bette Davis fought for the roles she wanted to play, while Nicole Kidman takes advantage of her freedom to choose parts and has handpicked a broad range of characters.
Today's actors' earnings are most influenced by their ________.
popularity with audiences
How does Elizabeth Taylor epitomize what it means to be a movie star?
She had a long career, won three Oscars, and remained a star even after she stopped acting
What sound innovation did Rouben Mamoulian introduce in Applause (1929)?
He had his sound technicians record overlapping dialogue with multiple microphones.
Why are stand-ins used when shooting a film?
To substitute for stars during the more tedious aspects of the shoot
Unlike actors performing in the Golden Age of Hollywood, today's superstars:
may choose their roles and negotiate earnings
To play the identical Winklevoss twins in The Social Network (2010), David Fincher cast Armie Hammer and Josh Pence and then used ________ to ensure their facial similarity.
American screen actor Joan Crawford's statement "A movie star paints with the tiniest brush" suggests that ________.
the camera captures an actor's most subtle facial expressions
How did Stanley Donen and Gene Kelly satirize the film industry in Singin' in the Rain (1952)?
It poked fun at the difficult transition from silent to sound production
Which director is correctly paired with his preferred style?
Terrence Malick encourages actors to identify with characters in a Method acting style.
Identify which of the following is NOT a function of a close-up.
it establishes a setting
Actor Franklin Pangborn, while never a household name, became instantly recognizable because:
he repeatedly played distinctive types as a character actor.
Without ________, Travis Bickle would not say, "You talking to me?" in Martin Scorsese's Taxi Driver (1976).
improvisation by Robert De Niro
What does transparency mean when used to describe an actor's performance?
The character is so clearly recognizable that the actor becomes invisible.
Moviegoers are most accepting of digital characters:
that do not represent recognizable human beings.
The Method (or Method acting) did not make a major impact on Hollywood until the 1950s because:
the studios were reliant on the star system and were not interested in the process of acting.
Which of the following is NOT a major factor when casting a role?
Any famous relatives the actor may have.
Director/Screenwriter Paul Thomas Anderson enjoys an unusually close collaboration with his actors and is able to elicit exceptional performances because:
he writes parts specifically for the actors he hopes to cast.
How has the transition from studio production to independent production affected actors' careers?
With the decrease of major movies produced each year, actors have had to supplement their film work.
Which of the following are NOT ways in which actors create screen personae?
They block out the director's concept of the role.
The Stanislavsky system of acting trained students to:
understand their characters' background and psychology.
Experienced screen actors know their most essential relationship is with the ________.
What is the impact of Orson Welles's decision to use a long take in the inciting moment of Citizen Kane (1941)?
It draws the audience's attention to the acting, not the editing between shots
Why did the first screen actors use exaggerated gestures, emphatic expressions, and the mouthing of words to bring their characters to life?
They were adapting the acting style of 19th-century theater
Tom Cruise, Cameron Diaz, and Will Smith are defined by their ________.
fixed personae, which they carry from role to role
What is the meaning of "playing in character" when used to refer to an actor's performance?
The characterization feels cohesive, consistent, and fits
What is a film actor's most basic skill?
Understanding how to reveal him-/herself to the camera during a close-up.
Which of the following is one of the challenges movie actors confront?
Interruptions by camera, lighting, and sound adjustments
Charlie Chaplin created his Tramp character:
starting with the costume
How do actors best reveal themselves to the camera during a close-up?
They focus on the power of even the slightest facial gesture.
Carl Theodor Dreyer's The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928) illustrates the power of ________.
the close up
How does Michelle Williams primarily convey the thought process and feelings of the character she plays in Blue Valentine (2010)?
Through gesture and physical movement.
Which of the following best characterizes a naturalistic style performance?
The behavior is believable and recognizable.
Which of the following does NOT describe what a movie star is?
An introverted actor who lacks screen charisma, yet is very well trained.
Peter Lorre's nonnaturalistic performance in the lead role of Hans Beckert in Fritz Lang's M (1931) reflects the influence of ________.
Which of the following is NOT one of the powers the studio typically exercised over its stable of actors?
Studios locked actors into ten-year option contracts
Director Sidney Lumet believed that great performances depended on:
the ability of actors to reveal themselves onscreen.
What is often the most important factor in determining a film's financial success?
Who was responsible for inventing the art of screen acting?
Lillian Gish, under D. W. Griffith's guidance.
When actors are repeatedly given particular kinds of roles based on their looks rather than their talent or experience, they are ________.
When William Wyler cast nonprofessional actor Harold Russell in The Best Years of Our Lives (1946):
Russell almost stole the movie away from professional actors.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of great screen acting
What technique does Meryl Streep use to get into character
She tries to find the similarities between herself and the character.
While both John Wayne and Jeff Bridges can be described as icons of Hollywood, what is one of the biggest differences between their careers?
John Wayne worked within the security of the studio system, while Jeff Bridges jumps around within today's independent system of movie production.
Which of the following performances is NOT an example of Method acting?
Greta Garbo as Queen Christina in Queen Christina (1933)
Why is Lillian Gish's portrayal of Lucy Burrows in Broken Blossoms (1919) generally acknowledged to be the first great film performance by an actor?
She displayed a range of emotions not previously seen on screen.
In the very first movies, people on the screen were ________.
ordinary people playing themselves
How did the first onscreen appearance of the great theatrical actor Sarah Bernhardt affect the film industry's development?
Her sterling reputation as a theater actor carried over to make cinema respectable.
Which of the following is NOT considered to be a component of improvisational acting?
Strict adherence to the screenplay.
How did director Werner Herzog create what he called "an atmosphere of hallucination, prophecy, visionary and collective madness" on the set of Heart of Glass (1976)?
He hypnotized the entire cast each day.
Which of the following did NOT pose a challenge for the transition from silent to sound production in films?
How did Michelle Williams and Ryan Gosling prepare for the scenes of their marriage falling apart in Blue Valentine (2010)?
They spent a month "living" their roles together in the house used for the actual shooting
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