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Boats that the Celts used
oxhide, 60 feet long
Where the Celts traded
Norway to France
Why did Christian Monks want isolation?
Get away from material world, closer to spiritual.
What was St. Brendan's voyage?
He might have gotten to North America. What else?
What did the vikings have going for them?
Fearless sailors, best boats for ocean travel in Europe
Another name for Longships
Dragon boats- drakkar
What were longships like?
long and narrow, little freeboard, for raiding, run usually by farmers/raiders, fast.
What was a knorr?
Cargo ship, 100 feet long.
What could a knorr carry?
20-40 tons of cargo.
Which viking ship was run by professional sailors?
When did Gardar Svavarson land on Iceland?
Did Svavarson mean to reach Iceland?
No, he was blown off course.
What did the monks think of Mt. Hekla
That it was the gate to hell.
Where did outlaw Vikings end up?
Iceland. By 930 40,000 Vikings lived there.
Who first saw Greenland?
When did Eric the Red reach Greenland?
What was the name of Eric the Red's estate?
Brattelid, in Narssaq, South Greenland
What was interesting about Brattelid?
The house had 12' thick walls.
How many vikings settled in Greenland at its height?
3000, but by 1500 they had disappeared.
Why did the Vikings disappear from Greenland?
Skraelings? Unlikely. Could have been bears, disease, climate change.
What were Middens?
What was in the Middens?
50% cow bones, 30% pigs, 20% sheep/goats.
When was the Little Climate Optimum?
When did the Little Ice Age begin?
Why wouldn't the vikings learn from the Skraelings?
Skraelings were not Christian.
What is freeboard
The distance from the water's surface to the edge of the boat.
On what date did Bjarni Herjolfson get lost?
October 9, 986
What land did Bjarni see but not land on?
What did Bjarni's crew pretend?
That they needed fresh water and fuel.
Where was Bjarni traveling between when he got lost?
From Iceland to Greenland to join his father Eric the Red.
Who bought Bjarni's ship?
When did Leif Ericsson sail west?
What was a bad omen for Eric the Red?
Fell off horse, didn't go with his son.
How many men did Leif have on his journey west?
What did Leif want in North America?
Hard and soft wood and furs.
What was the flat rock land?
Helluland (Baffin Island)?
What was Markland?
Forest land (South Labrador)?
What was Vinland?
Wine land (Newfoundland?)
What animals did Leif hunt while on North America (7 total)?
Bear, caribou, wolves, foxes, otters, beaver, martens. They also got timber.
Who went on expeditions after Leif?
Torvald Erickson and Torfin Karlsefni.
When did Torvald and Torfin go on their expeditions?
What was Torfin Karlsefni's big accomplishment?
He began the first real European colony in the New World.
What did Karlsefni get from the New World?
Whales, game, fish, ivory.
What did Torvald Ericcson do to 5 sleeping skraelings?
How did Torvald die?
Killed in fight with skraelings.
What diet limitation did the skraelings have?
They were lactose-intolerant: couldn't drink milk.
What did the skraelings trade pelts for?
Milk, but it made them sick.
What scared away the skraelings from Torfin's settlement?
What did the fleeing skraelings leave behind?
Their packs with furs in them.
Who scolded Vikings who fled from the skraelings?
Freydis Karlsefni, who was pregnant.
How did Freydis scare off the skraelings?
She picked up a sword from a dead man, bared her breasts, slapped breasts with sword.
What made Snorri famous?
First European born in North America?
Why didn't Vikings stay but Spaniards, French and British did?
They did not have guns. Other reasons?
What was the skraeling style of fighting that gave them an advantage?
Fought from long distances with spears and arrows. They could run away and disappear.
What was the viking style of fighting?
Thrusting, hacking, bludgeoning.
When did Columbus voyage to Iceland (maybe for directions)?
When was a Viking settlement discovered in Newfoundland?
What was in the settlement that was found?
1000 articles, boat rivets, bronze cloak pin, spindle whorl, foundations for three sod houses. The Vinland Map.