Digestion and nutrition

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How do our animals obtain protein and what happens if protein content is inadequate?most livestock feed protein comes from plant derivatives; Inadequate protein will result in animals having: decrease body condition and muscle mass, dull coat/huff issues, decrease in reproductive efficiency, decrease in productionhow does a legume work, why it contains high protein, and give two examples.legumes contain Rhizobia bacteria within the nodules that are able to convert N2 (Air in soil) into a biologically useful form (N3); Ex: peanut or soybean mealWhat do carbohydrates provide to the horse diet, and how can they obtain carbs? What happens if they don't consume enough carbs?Provide the majority of energy to an animal; this energy will be used to grow, maintain BW, and reproduce; Mainly come from plants; Inadequate carbohydrates will result in animals being depressed, slow growth and development, and an unthrifty appearanceWhy are fats critical to livestock diet? Which species do we observe lack dietary fat, and what happens in them when fat is low?Also provide energy, are capable of being stored as excess energy, and carry fat-soluble vitamins in the body; poultry; reduced growth rates and poor reproductive performanceWhich vitamins are fat-soluble and which are water-solubleFat-soluble: A, D, E, K Water-soluble: B, CIs an inadequate amount or toxicity more likely in minerals?Toxicity is a greater concern than inadequacy amountWhat's the difference between microminerals and macrominerals?Macrominerals: Needed in larger amounts; Ex: Calcium, Sodium, Phosphorous Microminerals: Needed in smaller amounts; Ex: Iron, Iodine, CopperWhat is the correct Ca:P ratio and why is that?2:1 ratio is ideal for most livestock. If Ca is lower, intestines don't absorb Ca properly=bone Ca is used insteadAre water and fat soluble vitamins different? If so how?Fat solubles are stored in fat globules and water soluble are flushed out in excretory systemWhat are the 4 feed additives, and why do we use them?Sensory: help stimulate appetite so animal will eat/eat more Nutritional: provide a particular nutrient that may be deficient in diet Zero Technical Additives: improves the nutritional value of diet; doesn't increase nutrition itself, but may increase feed efficiency or digestion Coccidiostat's and histomonostats: intended to kill or inhibit bacteria/micro-organisms.Where does digestion begin, and how does it occur?Mouth: Mastication, amylase which breaks down starches to maltose, then swallowKnow the correct order of digestive organs.1) Mouth 2) Esophagus 3) stomach 4) Small intestine 5) large intestine 6) Anus/RecumHow is a ruminant stomach different than a monogastric stomach?Has 4 compartmentsWhat are the by-products of rumination?heat and gas; pH=6-7What are the 4 compartments of the ruminant stomach responsible for?Ruman: Fermentation Reticulum: Catches large particles Omasum: Absorb water Abomasum: Protein break downWhat are the three parts to the small intestine and what is each section responsible for?Duodenum: Major digestion; some absorption Jejunum: Majority of carbohydrate digestion and absorption occurs in small intestine; also absorption of amino acids Ileum: Vitamins A/D/E/K and minerals absorbed hereWhat produces bile and what does bile do? How is the horse different in regards to bile?Liver; Breaks up fat; Horses don't have gallbladders and released directly into small intestineWhat are the different parts to the stomach and what do they do?Saccus Caecus: fermentation; pepsin and hydrochloric acid Fundic: Fermentation halts a little bit with the stomach at 5.4 pH Pyloric: Fermentation halts with the stomach at 2.6 pHWhat occurs in the cecum?fermentation occursWhat is the main function of the large intestine?Absorption of water