APES Chapter 8 & 9 Vocab
Terms in this set (77)
The sudden movement of Earth's crust caused by a release of potential energy along a geologic fault and usually causing a vibration or trembling at Earth's surface.
In geology, a crack that occurs in rock as it cools.
A large expanse of rock where a fault has occurred.
Rock formed directly from magma.
Extrusive Igneous Rock
Rock that forms when magma cools above the surface of Earth.
The exact point on the surface of Earth directly above the location where rock ruptures during an earthquake.
Convergent Plate Boundary
An area where plates move toward one another and collide.
The layer of Earth above the core, containing magma.
In reference to Earth, the innermost layer.
Intrusive Igneous Rock
Igneous rock that forms when magma rises up and cools in place underground.
The outermost layer of Earth, including the mantle and crust.
In geology, a place where molten material from Earth's mantle reaches the lithosphere.
Divergent Plate Boundary
An area beneath the ocean where tectonic plates move away from each other.
A fracture in rock caused by a movement of Earth's crust.
In geology, the chemically distinct outermost layer of the lithosphere.
The layer of Earth located in the outer part of the mantle, composed of semi-molten rock.
The least-weathered soil horizon, which always occurs beneath the B horizon and is similar to the parent material.
The zone of leaching that forms under the O horizon or, less often, the A horizon.
Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC)
The ability of a particular soil to absorb and release cations.
Acid Precipitation (Acid Rain)
Precipitation high in sulfuric acid and nitric acid from reactions between sulfur dioxide and water vapor and nitrogen oxides and water vapor in the atmosphere; also known as acid rain.
The average concentration of an element in Earth's crust.
The breakdown of rocks and minerals by chemical reactions, the dissolving of chemical elements from rocks, or both.
The accumulation or depositing of eroded material such as sediment, rock fragments or soil.
Frequently the second major soil horizon, composed primarily of mineral material with very little organic matter.
The physical removal of rock fragments from a landscape or ecosystem.
The proportion of soil bases to soil acids, expressed as a percentage.
Frequently the top layer of soil, characterized by mixing of organic material and mineral material.
Rock that forms when sedimentary rock, igneous rock, or other metamorphic rock is subjected to high temperature and pressure.
The continuous formation and destruction of rock on and below the surface of Earth.
The theory that the lithosphere of Earth is divided into plates, most of which are in constant motion.
The process of one crustal plate passing under another.
The cycle of processes that build up and break down the lithosphere.
The formation of new ocean crust as a result of magma pushing upward and outward from Earth's mantle to the surface.
A vent in the surface of Earth that emits ash, gases, or molten lava.
The frequency and intensity of earthquakes.
A scale that measures the largest ground movement that occurs during an earthquake.
Transform Fault Boundary
An area where tectonic plates move sideways past each other.
A solid chemical substance with a uniform, often crystalline, structure that forms under specific temperatures and pressures.
Rock that forms when sediments such as muds, sands, or gravels are compressed by overlying sediments.
An element with properties that allows it to conduct electricity and heat energy, and perform other important functions.
The mechanical breakdown of rocks and minerals.
Unwanted waste material created during mining.
The property of soil determined by relative proportions of sand, silt, and clay.
A mining technique in which the entire top of a mountain is removed with explosives.
In resource management, the known quantity of a resource that can be economically recovered.
The loss of some or all of a soil's ability to support plant growth.
A concentrated accumulation of minerals from which economically valuable materials can be extracted.
The organic horizon at the surface of many soils, composed of organic detritus in various stages of decomposition.
Rock underlying soil; the material from which the inorganic components of a soil are derived.
A mining technique that uses a large pit or hole in the ground, visible from the surface of Earth.
The removal of strips of soil and rock to expose ore.
A mining technique in which metals and precious stones are sought in river sediments.
Mining techniques used when the desired resource is more than 100 m (328 feet) below the surface of Earth.
A mix of geologic and organic components that forms a dynamic membrane covering much of Earth's surface.
An enlarged bank built up on each side of a river to prevent flooding.
A process by which water percolates through the soil and works its way into an aquifer.
A well created by drilling a hole into a confined aquifer.
An aquifer surrounded by a layer of impermeable rock or clay that impedes water flow.
Pavement or buildings that do not allow water penetration.
Cone of Depression
An area from which the groundwater has been rapidly withdrawn.
The land adjacent to a river.
A lake with a high level of productivity.
A permeable layer of rock and sediment that contains groundwater.
A structure built to prevent ocean waters from flooding adjacent land.
An aquifer made of porous rock covered by soil, which water can easily flow into and out of.
The process of removing the salt from salt water.
A stair-like structure that allows migrating fish to get around a dam.
A barrier that runs across a river or stream to control the flow of water.
A canal or ditch used to carry water from one location to another.
The cultivation of plants in greenhouse conditions by immersing roots in a nutrient-rich solution.
A natural source of water formed when water from an aquifer percolates up to the ground surface.
A lake with a moderate level of productivity.
An infiltration of salt water in an area where groundwater pressure has been reduced from extensive drilling of wells.
The uppermost level at which the water in a given area fully saturates rock or soil.
A body of water created by blocking the natural flow of a waterway.
A lake with a low level of productivity as a result of low amounts of nutrients in the water.