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MGT 300 Final Fall 2012
Terms in this set (104)
What are the three Mintzberg's Managerial Roles?
What subroles are included in the Interpersonal Role?
The role managers play when they perform ceremonial duties
The role managers play when they motivate and encourage workers to accomplish organizational objectives
The role managers play when they deal with people outside their units
What subroles are included in the Informational Role?
the role managers play when they scan their environment for information
the role managers play when they share information with others in their departments or companies
the role managers play when they share information with people outside their departments or companies
- Disturbance Handler
- Resource Allocator
What subroles are included in the Decisional Role?
the role managers play when they adapt themselves, their subordinates, and their units to change
Disturbance Handler Role
the role managers play when they respond to severe problems that demand immediate action
Resource Allocator Role
the role managers play when they decide who gets what resources and in what amounts
the role managers play when they negotiate schedules, projects, goals, outcomes, resources, and employee raises
getting work done with a minimum of effort, expense, or waste
accomplishing tasks that help fulfill organizational objectives
what are the four functions of management?
determining organizational goals and a means for achieving them
deciding where decisions will be made, who will do what jobs and tasks, and who will work for whom
inspiring and motivating workers to work hard to achieve organizational goals
monitoring progress toward goal achievement and taking corrective action when needed
the specialized procedures, techniques, and knowledge required to get the job done
the ability to work well with others
the ability to see the organization as a whole, understand how the different parts affect each other, and recognize how the company fits into or is affected by its environment
thoroughly studying and testing different work methods to identify the best, most efficient way to complete a job
Frederick W. Taylor
who is the father of scientific management?
the exercise of control on the basis of knowledge, expertise, or experience
Who proposed the idea of bureaucracy?
holds that there are no universal management theories and that the most effective management theory or idea depends on the kinds of problems or situations that managers are facing at a particular time and place
the degree of concern people have about an ethical issue
- Magnitude of consequences
- social consensus
- probability of effect
- temporal immediacy
- proximity of effect
- concentration of effect
What are the six factors of ethical intensity?
Magnitude of consequences
the total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision
agreement on whether behavior is bad or good
probability of effect
the chance that something will happen that results in harm to others
the time between an act and the consequences the act produces
proximity of effect
the social, psychological, cultural, or physical distance between a decision maker and those affected by his or her decisions
concentration of effect
the total harm or benefit that an act produces on the average person
What are the Kohlberg's stages of moral development?
Preconventional level of moral development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on selfish reasons
Conventional level of moral development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions that conform to societal expectations
Postconventional level of moral development
the level of moral development in which people make decisions based on internalized principles
Principle of long-term self interest
holds that you should never take any action that is not in your or your organization's long-term self-interest
Principle of personal virtue
holds that you should never do anything that is not honest, open, and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported in the newspapers or on TV
Principle of religious injunctions
holds that you should never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community
Principle of government requirements
holds that you should never take any action that violates the law, for the law represents the minimal moral standard
Principle of utilitarian benefits
holds that you should never take any action that does not result in greater good for society
Principle of individual rights
holds that you should never take any action that infringes on others' agreed-upon rights
Principle of distributive justice
holds that you should never take any action that harms the least fortunate among us: the poor, the uneducated, the unemployed
Situational (SWOT) Analysis
an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses in an organization's internal environment and the opportunities and threats in its external environment
Boston Consulting Group Matrix
a portfolio strategy that categorizes a corporation's businesses by growth rate and relative market share and helps managers decide how to invest corporate funds
a company with a large share of a fast-growing market
a company with a small share of a fast-growing market
a company with a small share of a fast-growing market
a company with a large share of a slow-growing market
a company with a small share of a slow-growing market
a broad corporate-level strategic plan used to achieve strategic goals and guide the strategic alternatives that managers of individual businesses or subunits may use.
what are the three kind of grand strategies?
a strategy that focuses on increasing profits, revenues, market share, or the number of places in which the company does business
a strategy that focuses on improving the way in which the company sells the same products or services to the same customers
a strategy that focuses on turning around very poor company performance by shrinking the size or scope of the business
- Character of the rivalry
- Threat of new entrants
- Threat of substitute products or services
- Bargaining power of suppliers
- Bargaining power of buyers
What are the five industry forces?
Character of the rivalry
a measure of the intensity of competitive behavior between companies in an industry
Threat of new entrants
a measure of the degree to which barriers to entry make it easy or difficult for new companies to get started in an industry
Threat of substitute products or services
a measure of the ease with which customers can find substitutes for an industry's products or services
Bargaining power of suppliers
a measure of the influence that suppliers of parts, materials, and services to firms in an industry have on the prices of these inputs
Bargaining power of buyers
a measure of the influence that customers have on a firm's prices
- Cost leadership
- Focus Strategy
What are the positioning strategies?
the positioning strategy of producing a product or service of acceptable quality at consistently lower production costs than competitors can, so that the firm can offer the product or service at the lowest price in the industry
the positioning strategy of providing a product or service that is sufficiently different from competitors' offerings that customers are willing to pay a premium price for it
the positioning strategy of using cost leadership or differentiation to produce a specialized product or service for a limited, specially targeted group of customers in a particular geographic region or market segment
- Cooperative Contracts
- Strategic Alliances
- Wholly Owned Affiliates
What are the forms of global business?
selling domestically produced products to customers in foreign countries
an agreement in which a foreign business owner pays a company a fee for the right to conduct that business in his or her country
an agreement in which a domestic company, the licensor, receives royalty payments for allowing another company, the licensee, to produce the licensor's product, sell its service, or use its brand name is a specified foreign market
a collection of networked firms in which the manufacturer or marketer of a product or service, the franchisor, licenses the entire business to another person or organization, the franchisee
an agreement in which companies combine key resources, costs, risk, technology, and people
a strategic, alliance in which two existing companies collaborate to form a third, independent company
Wholly Owned Affiliates
foreign officers, facilities, and manufacturing plants that are 100% owned by the parent company
Global New Ventures
new companies that are founded with an active global strategy and have sales, employees, and financing in different cultures
Hofstede's Five Cultural Dimensions
Chart that shows that there are give consistent cultural dimensions across countries: power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, and short-term versus long-term orientation.
extent to which people in a country accept that power is distributed unequally in society and organizations.
the degree to which societies believe that individuals should be self-sufficient
Masculinity and femininity
capture the difference between highly assertive and highly nurturing cultures
the degree to which people in a country are uncomfortable with unstructured, ambiguous, unpredictable situations.
addresses whether cultures are oriented to the present and seek immediate gratification or to the future and defer gratification.
differences such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, and physical disabilities that are observable, typically unchangeable, and easy to measure
differences such as personality and attitudes that are communicated through verbal and nonverbal behaviors and are learned only through extended interaction with others.
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed in 1990. Prohibits discrimination against essentially qualified employees with physical and/or mental disabilities, or chronic illness. Requires "reasonable accommodation" be provided for an employee who is otherwise qualified to do a job, so he/she can perform job duties
Equal Pay Act of 1963
Requires men and women be paid equally for performing equal work.
Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978
Protects female workers against discrimination. Covers pregnancy, childbirth, and related medical conditions.
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
Passed in 1967. Prohibits discrimination in employees over 40 years old; restricts mandatory retirement. This occurs when a qualified individual is adversely affected by a job action that provides an advantage to a younger worker.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
A cornerstone of our protection against discrimination in employment; amended in 1972 and 1991. Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, religion, and gender. Intent is to ensure all citizens the right to gain and keep employment based only on the ability to do the job and performance once on the job.
a reward that is tangible, visible to others, and given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors.
a natural reward associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake.
Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
Needs are arranged in a hierarchy from low to high; people are motivated by their lowest unsatisfied needs.
McClelland's Learned Needs
the degree to which particular needs motivate varies from person to person
Equity Theory - J. Stacy Adams
People will be motivated at work when they perceive that they are being treated fairly. In particular, equity theory stresses the importance of perceptions. So, regardless of the actual level of rewards people receive, they must also perceive that, relative to others, they are being treated fairly. "Equity is in the eye of the beholder!"
Expectancy Theory - Victor Vroom
People will be motivated to the extent to which they believe that their efforts will lead to good performance, that good performance will be rewarded, and that they will be offered attractive rewards.
Reinforcement Theory - B.F. Skinner
Behavior is a function of its consequences. Behaviors followed by positive consequences will occur more frequently. Behaviors followed by negative consequences, or not followed by positive consequences, will occur less frequently.
Schedules of Reinforcement: Continuous
behavior is reinforced every time it occurs
Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed Interval
behavior is reinforced according to some predetermined, constant schedule based on time.
Schedules of Reinforcement: Variable-Interval
behavior is reinforced after periods of time, but the time span varies from one time to the next
Schedules of Reinforcement: Fixed Ratio
behavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, with the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement held constant.
Schedules of Reinforcement: Variable-Ratio
behavior is reinforced according to the number of behaviors exhibited, but the number of behaviors needed to gain reinforcement varies from one time to the next
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