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Chapter 12: Study Questions
Terms in this set (184)
How does thought change as children enter the concrete operational stage?
More logical, flexible, and organized than it was during early childhood.
Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension, such as length or weight
Capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse direction, returning to the starting point.
Ability to focus on several aspects of a problem and relate them rather than centering on just one aspect.
Ability to seriate mentally.
Ability to focus on relations between a general category and two specific categories.
Advances in spatial reasoning are evidenced by the creation of _______.
Feature of cognitive map at - preschool
Include landmarks on the maps they draw, but their arrangement is not always accurate.
Feature of cognitive map at - ages 8-10
Become better organized, showing landmarks along anorganized route of travel.
Able to give clear, well-organized instructions for getting from one place to another by using a "mental walk" strategy—imagining another person's movements along a route.
Form an overall view of a large-scale space.
Feature of cognitive map at - ages 10-12
Readily draw and read maps, even when the orientation of the map and the space it represents do not match
Grasp the notion of scale—the proportional relation between a space and its map representation.
How cultural frameworks influence children's map making.
non-Western communities, people rarely use maps for way finding but rely on information from neighbors, street vendors, and shopkeepers.
Less often ride in cars and more often walk, which results in intimate neighborhood knowledge.
Indian children represented a rich array of landmarks and aspects of social life, such as people and vehicles, in a small area surrounding their home.
The U.S. children, in contrast, drew a more formal, extended space, highlighting main streets and key directions (north-south, east-west) but including few landmarks.
U.S. children's maps scored higher in cognitive maturity, this difference reflected cultural interpretations of the task:
When asked to create a map to "help people find their way," the Indian children drew spaces as far-reaching and organized as the U.S. children's.
Major limitation of concrete operational thought
Children think in an organized, logical fashion only when dealing with concrete information they can perceive directly.
Mental operations work poorly with abstract ideas—ones not apparent in the real world.
Logical thought is at first tied to immediate situations.
Rather than coming up with general logical principles that they apply to all relevant situations, children seem to work out the logic of each problem separately.
Children master concrete operational tasks step-by-step. Explain your answer.
They usually grasp conservation of number first.
Length, liquid, and mass, and then weight.
This continuum of acquisition (or gradual mastery) of logical concepts is another indication of the limitations of concrete operational thinking.
Examples that illustrate how culture and schooling contribute to children's mastery of conservation and other Piagetian tasks.
In tribal and village societies, conservation is often delayed.
Hausa of Nigeria
- basic conservation tasks—number, length, and liquid—are not understood until age 11 or later.
This suggests that taking part in relevant everyday activities helps children master conservation and other Piagetian problems.
Joey and Lizzie, for example, think of fairness in terms of equal distribution—a value emphasized in their culture.
Divide materials, such as Halloween treats or lemonade, equally among their friends . Because they often see the same quantity arranged in different ways, they grasp conservation early.
Going to school seems to promote mastery of Piagetian tasks.
Those who have been in school longer do better on transitive inference problems.
Opportunities to seriate objects, to learn about order relations, and to remember the parts of complex problems are probably responsible.
informal, non-school experiences can also foster operational thought.
Brazilian 6- to 9-year-old street vendors
- do poorly on Piagetian class inclusion tasks.
- better on versions relevant to street vending.
7 to 8, Zinacanteco Indian girls of southern Mexico, who learn to weave elaborately designed fabrics as an alternative to schooling, engage in mental transformations to figure out how a warp strung on will turn out as woven cloth—reasoning expected at the concrete operational stage.
North American children of the same age, who do much better than Zinacanteco children on Piagetian tasks, have great difficulty with these weaving problems.
Forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously in children but, rather, are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.
Case's information-processing view of cognitive development.
Development of operational thinking can best be understood in terms of gains in information-processing speed rather than a sudden shift to a new stage.
With practice, cognitive schemes demand less attention and become more automatic.
This frees up space in working memory so children can focus on combining old schemes and generating new ones.
For instance, the child who sees water poured from one container to another recognizes that the height of the liquid changes. As this understanding becomes routine, the child notices that the width of the water changes as well. Soon children coordinate these observations, and they grasp conservation of liquid. Then, as this logical idea becomes well-practiced, the child transfers it to more demanding situations, such as weight.
Once the schemes of a Piagetian stage are sufficiently automatic, enough working memory is available to integrate them into an improved representation.
As a result, children acquire central conceptual structures.
___________________ emerge from integrating concrete operational schemes are broadly applicable principles that result in increasingly complex, systematic reasoning.
central conceptual structures
Networks of concepts and relations that permit them to think more effectively in a wide range of situation.
Based on Case's theory, - Reasons why children's understandings appear in specific situations at different times rather than being mastered all at once
Examined children's performance on a wide variety of tasks, including solving arithmetic word problems, understanding stories, drawing pictures, sight-reading music, handling money, and interpreting social situations.
In each task, preschoolers typically focus on only one dimension.
In understanding stories, for example, they grasp only a single story line. In drawing pictures, they depict objects separately.
By the early school years, children coordinate two dimensions—two story lines in a single plot and drawings that show both the features of objects and their relationships.
Around 9 to 11 years, children integrate multiple dimensions.
They tell coherent stories with a main plot and several subplots.
And their drawings follow a set of rules for representing perspective.
Include several points of reference, such as near, midway, and far.
Explain why many understandings appear in specific situations at different times rather than being mastered all at once.
1. Different forms of the same logical insight, such as the various conservation tasks, vary in their processing demands, with those acquired later requiring more space in working memory.
2. Experiences vary widely.
A child who often listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures displays more advanced central conceptual structures in storytelling.
Better accounts for unevenness in cognitive development.
When tasks make similar processing demands, such as Piaget's class inclusion and transitive inference problems - children with relevant experiences master those tasks at about the same time .
Types of change involved in the school-age child's approach to Piagetian problems.
Continuous improvement in logical skills.
Discontinuous restructuring of children's thinking
During the school years, children apply logical schemes to many more tasks.
Thought change qualitatively—toward a more comprehensive grasp of the underlying principles of logical thought.
Factors that underlie every act of cognition
Attention and memory
Ways brain development contributes to changes in information processing.
Increases in speed and capacity.
Gains in inhibition.
Way brain development contributes to changes in information processing -
Increases in speed and capacity.
Time needed to process information on a wide variety of cognitive tasks declines rapidly between ages 6 and 12.
Age-related gain in speed of thinking, possibly due to myelination and synaptic pruning in the brain.
Greater efficiency contributes to more complex, effective thinking because a faster thinker can hold on to and operate on more information in working memory.
Indeed, digit span, which assesses the basic capacity of working memory, increases from about five digits at age 7 to seven digits at age 12.
Way brain development contributes to changes in information processing.
Gains in inhibition.
Age-related increase in activation of diverse cortical regions, especially the prefrontal cortex, in children and adolescents working on tasks that require suppression of inappropriate responses.
Can prevent their minds from straying to irrelevant thoughts.
Preserves space in working memory for the task at hand.
Ability to control internal and external distracting stimuli
improves from infancy on.
Ways in which attention changes during middle childhood.
Young elementary school children sometimes produce strategies, but not consistently.
Fail to control, or execute, strategies effectively.
Preschoolers rarely engage in attentional strategies.
Fail to produce strategies when they could be helpful.
effective strategy use
Use strategies consistently, and performance improves.
Slightly later, execute strategies consistently.
But their performance either does not improve or improves less than that of older children.
Example illustrating how school-age children's attentional strategies become more planful.
They scan detailed pictures and written materials for similarities and differences more thoroughly than preschoolers.
On tasks with many parts, they make decisions about what to do first and what to do next in an orderly fashion.
Older children more often took time to scan the store before shopping.
They also paused more often to look for each item before moving to get it.
Consequently, they followed shorter routes through the aisles
Explain how children typically learn planning skills.
By collaborating with more expert planners
children take on more responsibility
In these joint endeavors, such as organizing task materials and suggesting planning strategies.
The demands of school tasks.
Teachers' explanations of how to plan.
What adults can do to foster the development of planning in school-age children?
Typical characteristics of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Excessive motor activity
Resulting in academic and social problems
True or False: Children with ADHD perform as well as other children on tests of intelligence.
Score 7 to 15 points lower than other children on intelligence tests
Views that contribute to the theory that deficient executive processing underlies ADHD symptoms.
Impaired in capacity to inhibit action in favor of thought—a basic difficulty that results in wide-ranging inadequacies in strategic thinking and, therefore, in poor self-regulation.
_________ results from a cluster of executive processing problems that interfere with ability to guide one's own behavior.
Perform poorly on tasks requiring sustained attention; find it hard to ignore irrelevant information; have difficulty with memory, planning, reason.
Evidence that ADHD is influenced by heredity.
Show abnormal brain functioning, including reduced electrical and blood-flow activity in the prefrontal cortex.
In other areas involved in attention, inhibition of behavior, and other aspects of motor control. A
Brains grow more slowly.
Are about 3 percent smaller in overall volume, with a thinner cerebral cortex, than the brains of unaffected agemates.
Several genes that affect neural communication have been implicated in the disorder.
Evidence that ADHD is influenced by environment
Prenatal teratogens—such as tobacco, alcohol, illegal drugs, and environmental pollutants—are linked to inattention and hyperactivity.
Combine with certain genotypes to greatly increase risk of the disorder.
More likely to come from homes in which marriages are unhappy and family stress is high.
But a stressful home life rarely causes _____. Rather, these children's behaviors can contribute to family problems, which intensify the child's preexisting difficulties.
Treatments for ADHD
Prescribed stimulant medication
- most common treatment.
Stimulants might impair heart functioning
Even causing sudden death
- Cuz strain the patience of parents, who are likely to react punitively and inconsistently.
Child-rearing style that strengthens defiant, aggressive behaviour.
Approach combines medication with interventions that model and reinforce appropriate academic and social behavior
- the most effective treatment
True or False: ADHD is a lifelong disorder, with problems usually persisting into adulthood.
ADHD is a lifelong disorder, with problems usually persisting into adulthood.
memory strategy that emerge during middle childhood
Repeating the information to herself.
First appears in the early grade school years.
memory strategy that emerge during middle childhood - organization
Second strategy becomes common.
Grouping related items together (for example, all state capitals in the same part of the country), an approach that improves recall dramatically.
Factors required for perfecting memory strategies.
How is young children's use of memory strategies adaptive?
With experience, children organize more skillfully, grouping items into fewer categories.
Apply strategy to a wider range of memory tasks
Including ones with less clearly related materials.
Creates a relationship, or shared meaning, between two or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category.
If two of the words you must learn are fish and pipe, you might generate the verbal statement or mental image, "The fish is smoking a pipe."
Requires considerable effort and space in working memory, becomes increasingly common in adolescence and early adulthood
How does elaboration help children expand working memory and retrieval?
Because _______ combine items into meaningful chunks, they permit children to hold onto much more information.
Link new item to information they already know, they can retrieve it easily by thinking of other items associated with it
Example of how extensive knowledge and use of memory strategies are closely related to and support one another.
Knowing more about a topic makes new information more meaningful and familiar, so it is easier to store and retrieve.
Experts remembered far more items on the soccer list (but not on the nonsoccer list) than novices.
During recall, the experts' listing of items was better organized, as indicated by clustering of items into categories.
Highly knowledgeable children organize information in their area of expertise with little or no effort—by rapidly associating new items with the large number they already know.
Experts can devote more working-memory resources to using recalled information to reason and solve problems
True or False: Knowledge is not the most important factor in children's memory processing.
Children who are expert in an area are usually highly motivated. As a result, they not only acquire knowledge more quickly but also actively use what they know to add more
True or False: Children in non-Western cultures who have no formal schooling benefit more from instruction in memory strategies than Western children do.
Do not use or benefit from instruction in memory strategies because they see no practical reason to use these techniques
How are culture and schooling related to the development of memory strategies.
Tasks that require children to recall isolated bits of information strongly motivate use of _________.
Western children get so much practice with this type of learning that they do not refine techniques.
Rely on cues available in everyday life, such as spatial location and arrangement of objects.
Guatemalan Mayan 9-year-olds do slightly better than their U.S. agemates when told to remember the placement of 40 familiar objects in a play scene.
U.S. children often rehearse object names when it would be more effective to keep track of spatial relations.
Not just a product of a more competent information-processing system.
It also depends on task demands and cultural circumstances.
Example of how a school-age child's theory of mind differs from that of a preschooler.
Improved ability to reflect on their own mental life is another reason that their thinking and problem solving advanced.
Preschoolers -- passive container of information.
- Active, constructive agent that selects and transforms information.
- Better understanding of cognitive processes and the impact of psychological factors on performance.
- Know that doing well on a task depends on focusing attention—concentrating and exerting effort .
- Become increasingly aware of effective memory strategies and why they work.
- Grasp relationships between mental activities.
Remembering is crucial for understanding and that understanding strengthens memory.
How does the ability to make mental inferences assist children in understanding others' perspectives?
This grasp of inference enables knowledge of false belief to expand.
second-order false beliefs
By age 6 to 7, children aware that people form beliefs about other people's beliefs.
These ___________ can be wrong!
How do second-order false beliefs contribute to perspective taking?
Enables children to pinpoint the reasons that another person arrived at a certain belief.
This assists them greatly in understanding others' perspectives.
How does schooling contribute to theory of mind?
Experiences that foster awareness of mental activities contribute to school-age children's more reflective, process-oriented view of the mind.
Teachers often call attention to the workings of the mind when they remind children to:
Remember mental steps
Share points of view with peers
Evaluate their own and others' reasoning
Process of continuously monitoring progress toward a goal, checking outcomes, and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
Lizzie is aware that she should attend closely to her teacher's directions, group items when memorizing, reread a complicated paragraph to make sure she understands it, and relate new information to what she already knows. But she does not always engage in these activities.
How do researchers study cognitive self-regulation?
Look at the impact of children's awareness of memory strategies on how well they remember.
By second grade, the more children know about memory strategies, the more they recall—a relationship that strengthens over middle childhood.
And when children apply a strategy consistently, their knowledge of strategies strengthens, resulting in a bidirectional relationship between metacognition and strategic processing that enhances self-regulation
School-age children are not good at cognitive self-regulation. Explain your answer.
Children often have difficulty putting what they know about thinking into action.
Why does cognitive self-regulation develop gradually during middle childhood?
Monitoring learning outcomes is cognitively demanding, requiring constant evaluation of effort and progress.
Throughout elementary and secondary school, self-regulation predicts academic success.
Students who do well in school know when their learning is going well and when it is not.
If they encounter obstacles, they take steps to address them—for example, organize the learning environment, review confusing material, or seek support from more expert adults or peers.
This active, purposeful approach contrasts sharply with the passive orientation of students who achieve poorly.
Example of how parents and teachers can foster self-regulation.
Parents who patiently pointed out important features of the task and suggested strategies had children who, in the classroom, more often discussed ways to approach problems and monitored their own performance.
Explaining the effectiveness of strategies is particularly helpful because it provides a rationale for future action.
Children who acquire effective self-regulatory skills develop a sense of academic ________.
Confidence in their own ability, which supports future self-regulation.
Diverse information-processing skills that contribute to the process of reading.
- perceive single letters and letter combinations
- translate them into speech sounds
- recognize the visual appearance of many common words
- hold chunks of text in working memory while interpreting their meaning
- combine the meanings of various parts of a text passage into an understandable whole.
- phonological awareness
- gains in processing speed foster children's rapid conversion of visual symbols into sounds.
- visual scanning and discrimination
whole language approach to reading instruction
From beginning, children should be exposed to text in its complete form—stories, poems, letters, posters, and lists—so that they can appreciate the communicative function of written language.
Reading is meaningful, children will be motivated to discover the specific skills they need ..
phonics approach to reading instruction
Believe children should first be coached on ________ —the basic rules for translating written symbols into sounds.
Only after mastering these skills should they get complex reading material.
Explain why combining phonics with whole language is often the best strategy for teaching children to read.
Learning the relationships between letters and sounds enables children to decode, or decipher, words they have never seen before.
Children who enter school low in phonological awareness make far better reading progress when given training in phonics.
Detect new letter-sound relations while reading on their own, and as their fluency in decoding words increases, they are freer to attend to text meaning.
Without __________ children (many of whom come from poverty-stricken families) are substantially behind their agemates in text comprehension skills by third grade.
reading skills - 7 to 8 years
Masters basic decoding skills, reads about 3,000 words
reading skills - 18 years and older
Reads with self-defined purpose
reading skills - 2 to 6 years
Pretends to read and write
reading skills - 6 to 7 years
Masters letter-sound correspondences, reads simple stories
reading skills - 9 to 14 years
Reads to learn new knowledge, usually without questions
reading skills - 15 to 17 years
Reads widely, taps material with diverse viewpoints.
Arguments about how to teach mathematics closely resemble those in reading.
Bblend of both approaches is most beneficial.
Poorly performing students use cumbersome techniques or try to retrieve answers from memory too soon.
Experiment with strategies to see which are most effective.
Find ways to reorganize their observations in logical, efficient ways.
Make certain student knows why certain strategies work well are essential for solid mastery of basic math.
Research has shown that when teachers emphasize (conceptual knowledge / rote memorization of mathematical rules) children are more successful in learning to solve arithmetic problems.
Explain why students in Asian countries often excel at both math reasoning and computation.
Receive a variety of supports for acquiring _________ knowledge.
Use of the metric system helps to grasp place value.
The consistent structure of number words in their languages (ten-two for 12, ten-three for 13).
Number words are shorter and more quickly pronounced, more digits can be held in working memory at once, increasing speed of thinking.
Parents provide their children with extensive everyday practice in counting and computation
Classrooms devote more time to exploring concepts and less to drill and repetition.
Types of items commonly included on intelligence tests for children.
TYPICAL PERCEPTUAL & SPATIAL-REASONING
TYPICAL WORKING MEMORY
TYPICAL PROCESSING SPEED
Individually administered intelligence test
Demand considerable training and experience to give well.
The examiner not only considers the child's answers but also observes the child's behavior.
Noting such reactions as attention to and interest in the tasks and wariness of the adult.
Provide insight into whether the test score accurately reflects the child's abilities.
Stanford-Binet & Wechsler - Examples of ______ used to identify highly intelligent children and to diagnose children with learning problems.
Group administered intelligence test
Given from time to time in classroom.
Can give with minimal training.
Permit large numbers of students to be tested at once
Useful for instructional planning
Identifying children who require more extensive evaluation.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales
Appropriate for individuals between 2 years of age and adulthood
Assesses five broad intellectual factors: general knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, working memory, and basic information processing
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence
Appropriate for children 2 years, 6 months through 7 years 3 months
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV
Appropriate for individuals age 6-16
First test to be standardized on samples representing the total population of the United States, including ethnic minorities.
Assesses four broad intellectual factors: verbal reasoning, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed
Investigators look for relationships between aspects (or components) of information processing and children's intelligence test scores.
Why is componential analysis used?
Processing speed, measured in terms of reaction time on diverse cognitive tasks, is moderately related to IQ.
Individuals whose nervous systems function more efficiently, permitting them to take in more information and manipulate it quickly, appear to have an edge in intellectual skills.
In support of this interpretation, fast, strong ERPs (EEG brain waves in response to stimulation) predict both speedy cognitive processing and higher mental test scores.
And measures of working-memory capacity (such as digit span) correlate well with IQ.
Children who apply strategies effectively acquire more knowledge and can retrieve it rapidly.
Inhibition and sustained and selective attention are among a wide array of attentional skills that are good predictors of IQ.
Factors important in predicting IQ
Major shortcoming of the componential approach
Regards intelligence as entirely due to causes within the child.
But, cultural and situational factors also affect children's thinking.
Broad intelligences outlined in Sternberg's triarchic theory of successful intelligence.
Expanded the componential approach into a comprehensive theory that regards intelligence as a product of inner and outer forces.
It is made up of :
Intelligent behavior involves balancing all three intelligences to achieve success in life according to one's personal goals and the requirements of one's cultural community.
Sternberg's triarchic theory - analytical intelligence
Acquiring task-relevant and metacognitive knowledge
Engaging in self-regulation.
Sternberg's triarchic theory - creative intelligence
Capacity to solve novel problems
People who are _______ think more skillfully than others when faced with novelty.
Sternberg's triarchic theory - practical intelligence.
Application of intellectual skills in everyday situations.
Skillfully adapt their thinking to fit with both their desires and the demands of their everyday worlds.
When they cannot adapt to a situation, they try to shape, or change, it to meet their needs.
If they cannot shape it, they select new contexts that better match their skills, values, or goals.
____________ reminds us that intelligent behavior is never culture-free.
Example of how Sternberg's theory responds to the limitations of current intelligence tests.
Emphasizes the complexity of intelligent behavior.
The limitations of current ________ in assessing that complexity.
Out-of-school, practical forms of intelligence are vital for life success and help explain why cultures vary widely in the behaviors they regard as intelligent.
Mental tests can easily underestimate, and even overlook, the intellectual strengths of some children, especially ethnic minorities.
Theory of multiple intelligence
Defines intelligence in terms of distinct sets of processing operations that permit individuals to engage in a wide range of culturally valued activities.
Dismisses the idea of general intelligence, proposes at least eight independent intelligence.
Not grounded in research.
Sensitivity to the sounds, rhythms, and meaning of words and the functions of language
Ability to discriminate complex inner feelings and to use them to guide one's own behavior; knowledge of one's own strengths, weaknesses, desires, and intelligences.
Person with detailed, accurate self-knowledge
Ability to recognize and classify all varieties of animals, minerals, and plants
Ability to detect and respond appropriately to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others
Ability to use the body skillfully for expressive as well as goal-directed purposes; ability to handle objects skillfully
Ability to perceive the visual-spatial world accurately, to perform transformations on those perceptions, and to re-create aspects of visual experience in the absence of relevant stimuli
Ability to produce and appreciate pitch, rhythm (or melody), and aesthetic quality of the forms of musical expressiveness
Sensitivity to, and capacity to detect, logical or numerical patterns; ability to handle long chains of logical reasoning
True or False: In Gardner's theory, intelligence has a purely biological basis and is not affected by cultural values or learning opportunities
Believes that each intelligence has a unique biological basis, a distinct course of development, and different expert, or "end-state," performances.
At the same time, he emphasizes that a lengthy process of education is required to transform any raw potential into a mature social role.
Cultural values and learning opportunities affect the extent to which a child's intellectual strengths are realized and the way they are expressed.
A set of emotional abilities that enable individuals to process and adapt to emotional information.
Explain how researchers measure emotional intelligence
To measure it, researchers have devised items tapping emotional skills that enable people to manage their own emotions and interact competently with others.
One test requires people to:
- identify and rate the strength of emotions expressed in photographs of faces (emotional perception)
- to reason about emotions in social situations (emotional understanding)
- to identify which emotions promote certain thoughts and activities (emotional facilitation)
- to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies for controlling negative emotions (emotion regulation).
True or False: Emotional intelligence is modestly related to IQ, and it is positively associated with self-esteem, empathy, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction.
Emotional intelligence is modestly related to IQ, and it is positively associated with self-esteem, empathy, prosocial behavior, and life satisfaction.
Ways teachers help foster social and emotional intelligence in school-age children,
Lessons that teach emotional understanding
Respect and caring for others
Strategies for regulating emotion
Teach resistance to unfavorable peer pressure - using active learning techniques that provide skill practice both in and out of the classroom
Ethnic differences in IQ.
American black children and adolescents score, on average, 10 to 12 points below American white children.
Dofference has been shrinking over the past several decades, a substantial gap remains.
Hispanic children fall midway between black and white children.
SES differences in IQ.
Gap between middle-SES and low-SES children—about 9 points—accounts for some of the ethnic differences in IQ, but not all.
When black children and white children are matched on parental education and income, the black-white IQ gap is reduced by a third to a half.
Of course, considerable IQ variation exists within each ethnic and SES group.
What did kinship studies reveal about the role of heredity in IQ?
IQ scores of identical twins (who share all their genes) are more similar than those of fraternal twins.
.Researchers estimate that about half the differences in IQ among children can be traced to their genetic makeup.
What do adoption studies suggest about the contribution of environmental factors in IQ?
Reveal that when young children are adopted into caring, stimulating homes, their IQs rise substantially
Compared with the IQs of non _______ children who remain in economically deprived families.
Benefit to varying degrees.
Test performance can be greatly improved by an advantaged home life.
Did not do as well as children of high-IQ biological mothers placed in similar adoptive families.
Confirm that heredity and environment contribute jointly to IQ.
Research shows a dramatic secular trend in mental test performance. Explain what this means.
increase in cognitively demanding leisure activities.
Greatest gains have occurred on tests of spatial reasoning—tasks often assumed to be "culture fair" and, therefore, more genetically based.
Increase of 18 points per generation (30 years).
The existence of a large, environmentally induced secular trend that exceeds the black-white IQ gap presents another major challenge to the assumption that black-white and other ethnic variations in IQ are mostly genetic
If a test samples knowledge and skills that not all groups of children have had equal opportunity to learn.
Id the testing situation impairs the performance of some groups but not others, the resulting score is a biased, or unfair, measure.
Discuss the controversy surrounding test bias and ethnic differences in IQ.
Some experts reject the idea that intelligence tests are biased, claiming that they are intended to represent success in the common culture.
Because IQ predicts academic achievement equally well for majority and minority children, IQ tests are fair to both groups.
Others believe that lack of exposure to certain communication styles and knowledge, along with negative stereotypes about the test-taker's ethnic group, can undermine children's performance.
Example of how ethnic minority families often use communication styles that differ from those used in most classrooms and testing situations.
Do not match the expectations of most classrooms and testing situations.
________ parents rarely asked their children the types of knowledge-training questions typical of middle-SES white parents ("What color is it?" "What's this story about?"), which resemble the questioning style of tests and classrooms.
Only "real" questions, ones that they themselves could not answer.
Analogy questions ("What's that like?") or story-starter questions ("Didja hear Miss Sally this morning?") that called for elaborate responses about personal experiences and had no "right" answer.
Led the black children to develop complex verbal skills at home, such as storytelling and exchanging quick-witted remarks.
Language emphasized emotional and social concerns
Not facts about the world.
Confused by the "objective" questions they encountered on tests and in classrooms.
Ethnic minority parents without extensive schooling prefer a _____________ style of communication.
With increasing education, parents establish a hierarchical style.
True or False: Using nonverbal intelligence tests that tap spatial reasoning and performance skills considerably raises the scores of ethnic minority children.
Low-income minority children, who often grow up in more "people-oriented" than "object-oriented" homes, may lack opportunities to use games and objects that promote certain intellectual skills.
Fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype
Can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance.
How does stereotype threat influence low-SES minority children's performance on intelligence tests?
Some children were told that the tasks were "not a test."
Others were told that they were "a test of how good children are at school problems"—a statement designed to induce ___________ in the ethnic minority children.
Among children who were aware of ethnic stereotypes (such as "black people aren't smart"), African Americans and Hispanics performed far worse in the "test" condition than in the "not a test" condition.
Caucasian children, in contrast, performed similarly in both conditions.
Over middle childhood, children become increasingly conscious of ethnic stereotypes, and those from stigmatized groups are especially mindful of them.
By early adolescence, many low-SES, minority students start to devalue doing well in school, saying it is not important to them.
Self-protective disengagement, sparked by ___________, may be responsible.
Weakening of motivation can have serious long-term consequences.
Self-discipline predicts academic achievement at least as well as IQ.
components of self-discipline
delay of gratification
Children's ability to cope with the demands of their everyday environments.
Requires extensive knowledge of minority children's cultural values and practices.
Not been more effective than traditional tests in predicting academic achievement
Follows a pretest-intervene-retest procedure.
While intervening, the adult seeks the teaching style best suited to the child and communicates strategies that the child can apply in new situations.
Discuss the effectiveness of dynamic assessment for reducing cultural bias in testing.
Better correspondence may emerge in classrooms where teaching interactions resemble the ___________approach.
Individualized assistance on tasks carefully selected to help the child move beyond her current level of development..
School-age children develop ___________.
The ability to think about language as a system
True or False: The rate of vocabulary growth during the school years exceeds that of early childhood.
Increases fourfold, eventually exceeding 40,000 words.
Strategies that assist school-age children in building their vocabularies
Analyze the structure of complex words.
- From happy and decide, they quickly derive the meanings of happiness and decision.
Figure out many more word meanings from context.
Benefit from conversations with more expert speakers.
Think about and use words more precisely.
Word definitions. By the end of elementary school, synonyms and explanations of categorical relationships appear.
Add new words to their vocabulary simply by being given a definition.
More reflective and analytical approach to language permits them to appreciate the multiple meanings of words.
Example illustrating the school-age child's more reflective and analytic approach to language.
Many words, such as cool or neat, have psychological as well as physical meanings: "Cool shirt!" or "That movie was really neat!"
Grasp of double meanings permits 8- to 10-year-olds to comprehend subtle metaphors, such as "sharp as a tack" and "spilling the beans".
Leads to a change in children's humor.
Riddles and puns that alternate between different meanings of a key word are common: "Hey, did you take a bath?" "Why, is one missing?
Grammatical achievements of middle childhood.
Apply their grasp of the passive voice to a wider range of nouns and verbs.
Advanced understanding of infinitive phrases—the difference between "John is eager to please" and "John is easy to please".
Advances in pragmatic speech that take place during middle childhood.
Gains in the ability to evaluate the clarity of others' messages.
Advances in pragmatic speech - communicating clearly
Children can adapt to the needs of listeners in challenging communicative situations, such as describing one object among a group of very similar objects.
Advances in pragmatic speech - gains in the ability to evaluate the clarity of others' messages.
- Become better at resolving inconsistencies.
- More sensitive to distinctions between what people say and what they mean
Advances in pragmatic speech - narratives
Children's________ increase in organization, detail, and expressiveness.
The ability to generate clear oral ___________ enhances reading comprehension and prepares children for producing longer, more explicit written _________.
Cultural differences in children's narrative styles of communication.
Because children pick up the _______________of significant adults in their lives, it varies widely across cultures.
American school-age children, who describe an experience from beginning to end.
African-American children often use a topic-associating style in which they blend several similar experiences.
As a result, African-American children's ______ are usually longer and more complex than those of white children
Ways in which children can become bilingual.
By acquiring both languages at the same time in early childhood.
By learning a second language after mastering the first.
True or False: When bilingual children engage in code switching, they do not violate the grammar of either language.
Producing an utterance in one language that contains one or more "guest" words from the other—without violating the grammar of either language
True or False: There is a sensitive period for second-language development.
Although mastery must begin sometime in childhood for full development to occur, a precise age cutoff for a decline in second-language learning has not been established
Cognitive benefits of bilingualism.
Fevelop denser gray matter (neurons and connective fibers) in areas of the left hemisphere devoted to language.
Outperform others on tests of selective attention, analytical reasoning, concept formation, and cognitive flexibility.
Advanced in certain aspects of metalinguistic awareness:
- detection of errors in grammar
- conventions of conversation (responding politely, relevantly, and informatively).
Transfer their phonological awareness skills in one language to the other.
Sttructure and benefits of Canada's language immersion programs.
English-speaking children are taught entirely in French for several years.
This strategy succeeds in developing children who are proficient in both languages and who, by grade 6, achieve as well in reading, writing, and math as their counterparts in the regular English program
Current debate regarding how American ethnic minority children with limited English proficiency should be educated.
Some believe that time spent communicating in the child's native tongue detracts from English-language achievement, which is crucial for success in the worlds of school and work.
Other educators, committed to developing minority children's native language while fostering mastery of English.
Providing instruction in the native tongue lets minority children know that their heritage is respected.
Prevents inadequate proficiency in both languages.
Minority children who gradually lose their first language as a result of being taught the second end up limited in both languages for a time.
This circumstance leads to serious academic difficulties and is believed to contribute to the high rates of school failure and dropout among low-SES Hispanic youngsters.
Benefits of combining children's native language with English in the classroom
Are more involved in learning
Participate more actively in class discussions
Acquire the second language more easily
Characteristics of high-quality education in elementary school.
Interactions between teachers and children
Evaluations of progress
Relationship with parents
According to research on 6,000 Tennessee kindergartners, what is an ideal class size for facilitating children's learning?
No more than 18 children.
Reasons why small class size is beneficial.
Teachers spend less time disciplining & more time teaching.
Give individual attention.
Higher-quality class participation
More favorable attitudes toward school
Teacher is the sole authority for knowledge, rules, and decision-making. - does most of the talking.
Students are relatively passive—listening, responding when called on, and completing teacher-assigned tasks.
Progress is evaluated by how well they keep pace with a uniform set of standards for their grade.
Encourages students to construct their own knowledge.
Many are grounded in Piaget's theory
Views children as active agents who reflect on and coordinate their own thoughts.
Rather than absorbing those of others.
Associated with gains in critical thinking, social and moral maturity, and positive attitudes.
Richly equipped learning centers
Individuals solving self-chosen problems
A teacher who guides and supports in response to children's needs.
Students are evaluated by considering their progress in relation to their own prior development.
Children participate in a wide range of challenging activities with teachers and peers, with whom they jointly construct understandings.
As children appropriate (take for themselves) the knowledge and strategies generated through working together.
They become competent, contributing members of their classroom community and advance in cognitive and social development.
Vygotskian-inspired teaching methods.
Teachers and children as partners in learning.
Experience with many types of symbolic communication in meaningful activities.
Teaching adapted to each child's zone of proximal development.
Vygotskian-inspired teaching method - Teachers and children as partners in learning.
A classroom rich in both teacher-child and child-child collaboration transfers culturally valued ways of thinking to children.
Vygotskian-inspired teaching method - Experience with many types of symbolic communication in meaningful activities.
As children master reading, writing, and mathematics, they become aware of their culture's communication systems, reflect on their own thinking, and bring it under voluntary control.
Vygotskian-inspired teaching method - Teaching adapted to each child's zone of proximal development.
Assistance that both responds to current understandings and encourages children to take the next step helps ensure that each child makes the best progress possible
Method of learning in which a teacher and 2 to 4 students form a cooperative group and take turns leading dialogues on the content of a text passage.
Creates a zone of proximal development in which children learn to scaffold one another's progress and assume more responsibility for comprehending text passages
Cognitive strategies that group members apply during these dialogues.
Strategy to apply during dialogue - .Questioning
The dialogue leader (at first a teacher, later a student) begins by ____________ .
Students offer answers, raise additional questions, and, in case of disagreement, reread the original text.
Strategy to apply during dialogue - Summarizing
Next, the leader _________ the passage, children discuss the summary.
Strategy to apply during dialogue - Clarifying
Children_______ unfamiliar ideas.
Strategy to apply during dialogue - Predicting
Finally, the leader encourages students to ______ upcoming content based on clues in the passage.
communities of learners
, and (p. 469)
Description: Classrooms become communities of learners where teachers guide the overall process of learning but no other distinction is made between adult and child contributors: All participate in joint endeavors and have the authority to define and resolve problems.
What is the philosophy behind the educational approach - communities of learner?
Assumption that different people have different expertises that can benefit the community and that students, too, may become experts.
Classroom activities are often long-term projects addressing complex, real-world problems.
In working toward project goals, children and teachers draw on the expertises of one another and of others within and outside the school.
Collaboration is created from within by teachers and children and supported from without by the culture of the school.
As a result, the approach broadens Vygotsky's concept of the zone of proximal development, from a child in collaboration with a more expert partner (adult or peer) to multiple, interrelated zones.
How do teachers interact with disruptive students
Good ________ are as caring, helpful, and stimulating—behaviors associated with gains in motivation, achievement, and positive peer relations.
More conflicts with teacher
Receive more criticism.
Caring teacher-student relationships have an especially strong impact on the achievement and social behavior of low-SES minority students and other children at risk for learning difficulties
How do teachers interact with high-achieving, well-behaved students?
More support and praise.
Have more sensitive and supportive relationships with teachers.
educational self-fulfilling prophecies
Children may adopt teachers' positive or negative views and start to live up to them.
How do educational self-fulfilling prophecies affect students' motivation and performance?
This effect is particularly strong when teachers emphasize competition and publicly compare children, regularly favoring the best students.
Why do teacher expectations have a greater impact on low-achieving than high-achieving students?
When a teacher is critical, high achievers can fall back on their history of success.
__________students' sensitivity to self-fulfilling prophecies can be beneficial when teachers believe in them.
But biased teacher judgments are usually slanted in a negative direction.
How can homogeneous groups be a potential source of self-fulfilling prophecies?
Low-group students—who as early as first grade are more likely to be low-SES, minority, and male—get more drill on basic facts and skills, engage in less discussion, and progress at a slower pace.
Gradually, they decline in self-esteem and motivation and fall further behind in achievement.
Children of similar ability levels are taught together.
benefits of multigrade classrooms
Peer tutoring - both tutors and tutees benefit in achievement and self-esteem.
How doesstudent training in cooperative learning contributes to the success of benefits of multigrade classroom?
Small groups of classmates work toward common goal:
- by resolving differences of opinion
- sharing responsibilities
- considering one another's ideas
- providing one another with sufficient explanations to correct misunderstandings.
When teachers prompt, explain, model, and have children role-play how to work together effectively, cooperative learning among heterogeneous peers results in clearer explanations, greater enjoyment of learning, and achievement gains across a wide range of school subject
True or False: Since U.S. public schools were desegregated in the 1950s, most African-American and Hispanic children attend schools that are ethnically diverse
Today, the racial divide in American education is deepening. African-American children are just as likely to attend a school that serves a mostly black population as they were in the 1960s; Hispanic children are even more segregated.
Minority students attend ethnically mixed schools, they typically do so with other minorities.
Emphasize a specific area of interest—such as performing arts, math and science, or technology.
Families outside the school neighborhood are attracted to _________ by their rich academic offerings.
Why are magnet schools more diverse than mainstream public schools?
Located in low-income, minority areas, where they serve the neighborhood student population.
Other students, who apply and are admitted by lottery, are bussed in—many from well-to-do city and suburban neighborhoods.
In another model, all students—including those in the surrounding neighborhood—must apply.
In either case, ________ are voluntarily desegregated.
Explain how the use of word-processing programs can be beneficial to children as they learn to read and write.
Enables children to write freely
Experiment with letters and words without having to struggle with handwriting.
Can revise their text's meaning and style
Check their spelling, they worry less about making mistakes.
Wriitten products tend to be longer and of higher quality.
Example of a sex difference in computer use and choice of activities.
Boys spend more time than girls.
Use it somewhat differently:
Boy - connect to the Internet to download games and music, trade and sell things, and create Web pages.
Girls - emphasize information gathering, area, and instant messaging.
True or False: Children who are skilled in the use of computers usually acquire an adult-level understanding of the technical complexity of the Internet by age 7.
Not until ages 10 to 11 do children acquire an adult-level understanding of the technical complexity of the Internet as a network like system linking a computing center with many computers
Students with learning difficulties learn alongside typical students in the regular educational setting for part or all of the school day.
A practice designed to prepare them for participation in society.
Combats prejudices against individuals with disabilities
mild mental retardation
Their IQs fall between 55 and 70, and they also show problems in adaptive behavior, or skills of everyday living.
But the largest number—5 to 10 percent of school-age children—have learning disabilities, great difficulty with one or more aspects of learning, usually reading. As a result, their achievement is considerably behind what would be expected on the basis of their IQ. Sometimes, deficits express themselves in other ways—for example, as severe inattention (see page 444), which depresses both IQ and achievement test scores.
True or False: Nearly all students benefit academically from full inclusion.
Some students benefit academically from inclusion, many do not.
Achievement gains depend on both the severity of the disability and the support services available.
Children with disabilities often are rejected by regular-classroom peers.
Students with mental retardation are overwhelmed by the social skills of their classmates; they cannot interact adeptly in a conversation or game.
Processing deficits of some learning-disabled students lead to problems in social awareness and responsiveness.
True or False: Special-needs children placed in regular classrooms often do best when they receive instruction in a resource room for part of the day and in the regular classroom for the remainder of the day.
In the resource room, a special education teacher works with students on an individual and small-group basis.
Then, depending on their progress, children join regular classmates for different subjects and amounts of time.
Ways in which teachers can promote peer acceptance in inclusive classrooms.
Exceptional intellectual strengths
IQ scores above 130.
Exceptional capacity to solve challenging academic problems
Ability to produce work that is original yet appropriate.
Arriving at a single correct answer and is emphasized on intelligence tests
The generation of multiple and unusual possibilities when faced with a task or problem.
Family characteristics that foster talent.
Parents who are warm and sensitive
Stimulating home life
Devoted to developing their child's abilities
Provide models of hard work and high achievement.
Reasonably demanding but not driving or overambitious.
Arrange for caring teachers while the child is young.
More rigorous master teachers as the child's ____ develops.
Outstanding performance in a particular field.
Risk factors associated with extreme giftedness, noting sex difference
Desire gratifying peer relationships, and some—more often girls than boys—try to become better-liked by hiding their abilities.
Compared with their ordinary agemates ___________,especially girls, report more emotional and social difficulties, including low self-esteem and depression.
Models for educating gifted children
Enrichment in regular classrooms
Special instruction (the most common practice)
Advance to a higher grade.
Reasons why U.S. children lag behind students in other countries.
Instruction is less challenging. More focused on absorbing facts, and less focused on high-level reasoning and critical thinking than in other countries.
No Child Left Behind Act has contributed because it mandates severe sanctions for schools whose students do not meet targeted goals on achievement tests.
Less equitable in the quality of education it provides to its low-income and ethnic minority students..
Factors that have led to academic success for Finnish students.
Replaced it with curricula, teaching practices, and assessments aimed at cultivating initiative, problem solving, and creativity.
Highly trained: They must complete several years of graduate-level education at government expense.
Grounded in equal opportunity for all.
In contrast to their Asian counterparts, American parents and teachers tend to believe that children's (native ability / hard work) is central to academic success.
Strategies for improving the U.S. education system..
Provide intellectually challenging, relevant instruction with real-world applications
Srengthen teacher education
Support parents in creating stimulating home learning environments, monitoring their children's academic progress, and communicating often with teachers
Invest in high-quality preschool education, so every child arrives at school ready to learn.
Pursue school improvements that reduce the large inequities in quality of education.
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