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Chapter 12: Study Questions

Terms in this set (184)

In tribal and village societies, conservation is often delayed.

Hausa of Nigeria
- basic conservation tasks—number, length, and liquid—are not understood until age 11 or later.

This suggests that taking part in relevant everyday activities helps children master conservation and other Piagetian problems.

Joey and Lizzie, for example, think of fairness in terms of equal distribution—a value emphasized in their culture.

Divide materials, such as Halloween treats or lemonade, equally among their friends . Because they often see the same quantity arranged in different ways, they grasp conservation early.

Going to school seems to promote mastery of Piagetian tasks.

Those who have been in school longer do better on transitive inference problems.

Opportunities to seriate objects, to learn about order relations, and to remember the parts of complex problems are probably responsible.

informal, non-school experiences can also foster operational thought.

Brazilian 6- to 9-year-old street vendors
- do poorly on Piagetian class inclusion tasks.
- better on versions relevant to street vending.

7 to 8, Zinacanteco Indian girls of southern Mexico, who learn to weave elaborately designed fabrics as an alternative to schooling, engage in mental transformations to figure out how a warp strung on will turn out as woven cloth—reasoning expected at the concrete operational stage.

North American children of the same age, who do much better than Zinacanteco children on Piagetian tasks, have great difficulty with these weaving problems.

Forms of logic required by Piagetian tasks do not emerge spontaneously in children but, rather, are heavily influenced by training, context, and cultural conditions.
Examined children's performance on a wide variety of tasks, including solving arithmetic word problems, understanding stories, drawing pictures, sight-reading music, handling money, and interpreting social situations.

In each task, preschoolers typically focus on only one dimension.

In understanding stories, for example, they grasp only a single story line. In drawing pictures, they depict objects separately.

By the early school years, children coordinate two dimensions—two story lines in a single plot and drawings that show both the features of objects and their relationships.

Around 9 to 11 years, children integrate multiple dimensions.

They tell coherent stories with a main plot and several subplots.

And their drawings follow a set of rules for representing perspective.
Include several points of reference, such as near, midway, and far.

Explain why many understandings appear in specific situations at different times rather than being mastered all at once.

1. Different forms of the same logical insight, such as the various conservation tasks, vary in their processing demands, with those acquired later requiring more space in working memory.

2. Experiences vary widely.
A child who often listens to and tells stories but rarely draws pictures displays more advanced central conceptual structures in storytelling.

Better accounts for unevenness in cognitive development.

When tasks make similar processing demands, such as Piaget's class inclusion and transitive inference problems - children with relevant experiences master those tasks at about the same time .