Terms in this set (40)
is a large jazz ensemble typically including three to four trumpets, three to four trombones, four to five reeds (saxophones and doublings), and rhythm (typically piano, guitar, bass, and drums).
occurs when the band stops playing for a short period of time--usually one to two bars--to feature the soloist.
is a common informal term for a written music arrangement
was a type of New Orleans-style jazz created by Chicago Musicians in the 1920s.
which is an Italian for "tail", which provides an optional concluding section of an arrangement, added for greater finality. A brief coda is called a TAG.
is the term often applied to the simultaneous improvising of the New Orleans (Dixieland) jazz ensemble.
is a secondary melody that accompanies the main melody. It is generally heard in a lower voice--for example, on the trombone--and, in the Dixieland, is usually improvised.
Creoles of color
were people of mixed black and white ancestry. Until the late nineteenth century, they enjoyed more freedom and were better educated than the general black population. Musicians from this group generally had classical training and could read musical scores.
is a music competition in which players try to surpass, or "cut" one another in the brilliance of their improvisations.
New Orleans Jazz is often called this. It originated in New Orleans and flourished in the late 1910's and 1920s. The New Orleans Jazz bad often had a front line of trumpet or cornet, trombone, and clarinet, accompanied by a rhythm section of piano, guitar, or banjo, bass, and drums.
is a technique whereby notes are slurred directly from one to another, producing a continuous rise or fall in pitch
From roughly 1921 to 1928, there was a period of outstanding artistic activity among African Americans. The movement was centered in this city, and state.
is a musical plan and form worked up verbally by the players in rehearsal or on the bandstand.
featured faster tempos and dramatic solo and group performances usually with more improvisation than sweet bands had
The jazz technique of playing melodic lines that favor the principal notes of the harmonies.
are devices played in or over the bells of brass instruments to alter their tone. Different _______ creates different kinds of effects, but a ________ horn will usually be less brilliant than an "open" one.
New Orleans Jazz
Is often called Dixieland or Dixie land jazz. Became known during 1910s and 1920s. Had a front line of trumpet/cornet, trombone, and clarinet, and accompanied by a rhythm section of piano, guitar, or banjo, bass, and drums.
is the final chorus of the jazz performance.
The jazz technique of playing notes that depart from (or are "_________" of) the chords of a given piece.
are cylinders of rolled paper punched with holes. When fed through a properly equipped player piano, the holes activate hammers that play the piano automatically.
A piano equipped with a mechanism that allows it to play piano rolls.
is a type of mute derived from a plumber's sink utensil. The rubber cup is held against the bell of the instrument and manipulated with the left hand to alter the horn's tone quality.
was an informal gathering held to raise money for _____ or groceries. At such parties, musicians would often gather and perform, sometimes in competition with one another.
is a short, melodic idea, usually one to two bars in length, that is repeated as the core idea of a musical passage. Sometimes different band sections will trade it in a call-and-response format, often over changing harmonies. Usually rhythmic and simple, the _____ can also provide a swinging background for an improvising soloist.
is a jazz vocal style in which the soloist improvises using made-up or nonsense syllables.
Section (of a band)
is a group of related instruments in a big band; three trumpets and three trombones might form a brass section.
is the climatic chorus of jazz performance. It often occurs at the end of a piece, in which case it is also an out-chorus.
was someone who performed a song usually at a music store, to encourage people to buy the sheet music.
was a Prohibition-era nightclub in which liquor was sold illegally.
is a technique of playing short detached strikes on notes in a series.
Stock arrangements (stock)
was an arrangement created and sold by a publishing company to bandleaders. In some cases, these were generic and unimaginative; at other times the arrangements were quite effective. Bands performed stocks to keep up with the latest hit songs. They would either play them as given or modify them to work with their bands' individual styles.
A performance technique in which the rhythm section punctuates distinct beats, often to accommodate a soloist's improvisation between the band's chords.
is a school of jazz piano performance based on a moving left-hand accompaniment alternating bass notes and chords with an appropriate right-hand figuration pulling or tugging at the left-hand.
A European classical musical work that has several sections, each with distinctive melodies and moods. The sections may be related thematically. Often composers will extract the most popular or most effective sections from extended works, such as operas and ballets, to create a ______ for concert performances.
played less syncopated, slower pieces, such as ballads and popular songs.
A brief coda
New Orleans style of playing trombone with chromatic glissandos (notes slurred directly from one to another) created by a rapid up and down motion of the slide.
is a vibrato added to the end of a sustained note.
Tin Pan Alley
is the collective name applied to the major New York City sheet music publishers. It flourished from the late 1800s until the mid-twentieth century.
is a method of varying the pitch frequency of a note, producing a wavering sound. It is heard mostly on wind instruments, strings, and vocals.
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