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Terms in this set (74)
Was called the "Gift of the Nile" because the Nile River was so important to the people. Civilization developed after people began farming along the Nile.
The Nile River
Longest river in the world.
It flows NORTH.
It provided water and fertile soild for farming.
The southern region of ancient Egypt, named so because it was located upriver with the Nile's flow.
Flooded by the Nile in mid-summer
The northern region of ancient Egypt, named so because it was located downriver with the Nile's flow.
Flooded by the Nile in the fall.
A triangular area of land from soil deposits by a river.
"The Black Land"
The Nile's flooding coated the land with silt. The silt made the land a dark color.
"The Red Land"
The dry, lifeless desert beyond the river vally.
Moved into the NileValley more than 12,000 years ago.
They learned how to farm and settled along the Nile.
They grew wheat and barley.
As in mesopotamia, farmers in Egypt developed an irrigation system.
Egyptians farmers did NOT need to build basins for storing water. Instead, they built a series of canals to direct the river's flow and carry water to their fields.
Farmers in Eqypt grew
Wheat, barley, fruits, vegetables. They also raised cattle and sheep. The river provided fish. They trapped geese and ducks along the banks. Egyptians enjoyed a varied diet.
Egypt was hard to invade. It had desert to the west. To the north, the Mediterranean Sea kept enemies away. To the east, deserts and the Red Sea protected against invasion. Cataracts in the Nile made it difficult to sail in the South.
Capital of Lower Egypt in the north.
Located in the northwest Nile Delta.
The king wore a red crown.
Capital of Upper Egypt.
Located on the west bank of the Nile.
The king wore a cone-shaped white crown.
Egypt's "first pharaoh."
He founded Egypt's first dynasty.
Rose to power in Upper Egypt around 3100 BC
He wanted to unify Upper and Lower Egypt.
He invaded Lower Egypt and married a princess from Lower Egypt to strengthen his control over the unified countries.
He wore both the white and red crown to symbolize his leadership over the 2 kingdoms. Later he combined the 2 crowns into a double crown.
Title used by the rulers of Egypt.
Title means, "great house."
Series of rulers from the same family.
New capital city built by Menes at the southern tip of the Nile Delta.
The political and cultural center of Egypt for centuries.
Many government offices and artistic avtivity.
Lasted over 200 years.
Rulers after Menes also wore the double crown to symbolize their rule over Upper and Lower Egypt.
They extended Egyptian territory into Southwest Asia.
Rivals arose to challenge the First Dynasty
Based on social classes.
A small group of royalty and nobles ruled.
The rest of the populatin supplied food, crafts and labor.
Rose to power in Egypt around 2700 BC.
Its rule began a period known as the
A period in Egyptian history that lasted for about 500 years, from about
2700 BC to 2200 BC.
They believed that the pharaoh was both a king and a god.
Egyptians believed that Egypt belonged to the Gods.
Egyptians believed that the pharaoh had come to earth in order to manage Egypt for the rest of the gods.
The pharaoh had power of the land and people of Egypt.
They blamed the pharaoh for failed crops and disease.
They demanded that the pharaoh make trade profitable and prevent wars.
Te most famous pharaoh of the Old Kingdom, who ruled in the 2500s BC.
Heis best known for the monumnets that were built to him.
The class just below the pharaoh.
People from rich and powerful families.
Govenment officials and priests.
Egypt's Middle Class
Lesser govenment officials, scribes, and craftspeople.
Egypt's Lower Class
Farmers, servants, and slaves.
80% of Egypt's popoulation.
Trade with Nubia
To acquire gold, copper, ivory, slaves, and stone for building.
Trade with Syria
To provide Egypt with wood for building and fire.
Oganized, disciplines, and highly religious.
Worshipping the gods
Part of daily life in Egypt.
Many customs focused on what happened after people died.
("The worship of many gods.)
Before the First Dynasty, each village worshipped its own gods.
During the Old Kingdom, everyone expected to worship the same gods.
Egyptians built these all over the kingdom. They collected payments from worshippers and the government.
"The creator of the world" god
Prayed to in the city of Memphis.
Many mixed human and animal forms.
Re or Amon-Re
The Sun god
The god of the underworld
The goddess of magic
A sky god, god of the pharaohs
The god of wisdom
The earth god
Life after death.
Most Egyptians believed that the afterlife was a happy place.
A person's life force.
When a person died, his or her ka left the body and became a spirit.
The ka remained linked to the body and could not leave the burial site.
It still had the same needs, so the people filled the tombs with objects (furniture, tools, clothing jewelry, weapons) for the afterlife.
Relatives brought food and beverages to the tombs.
Egyptian burial practices
The body had to be preserved. If the body decayed, the spirit could not recognize it.
The Egyptian developed this method to preserve bodies and keep them from decaying.
Specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth.
Preserves dead bodies for many years.
Steps of Embalming
Only the god Anubis was allowed to perform the first steps in preparing a mummy.
First step was to cut open the body and remove all organs EXCEPT the heart.
The organs was stored in special jars next to the mummy.
A special substance was used to dry out the body. Special oils were later applied.
The body was srapped with linen cloths and bandages. Charms were placed inside the cloth wrappings.
Wrapping the body was the last step.
The body was placed in a coffin called a sacophagus.
People of wealth and power.
They could afford to have mummies made.
Huge stone tombs with four triangle-shaped walls that met in a point on top.
The application of scientific knowledge for pratical purposes.
The largest pyramid
Great Pyramid of Khufu.
Took thousands of workers and more than 2 million limestone blocks to build.
Found around 2700 BC
Steps were filled and covered with limestone.
Burial chamber was deep inside and sealed with rocks.
Wages for workers on construction projects
Usually paid in goods such as grain, instead of money.
Significance of the Pyramids
Burial in a pyramid demonstrated a pharaoh's importance.
Pointing to the skies, pyramids symbolized the pharaoh's journey to the afterlife.
Magical spells and symns on the pharaoh's tombs.
A Period of stable order and stability from 2050 - 1750 BC
(Pharaohs could not collect enough taxes to keep up with their expenses (Pyramids), nobles used their government positions to take power from the pharaohs.)
Group of people from South-west Asia, used horses, chariots and advanced weapons to conquer Lower Egypt.
Ahmose of Thebes
In the mid 1500s BC, he declared himself the king and drove the Hyksos our of Egypt.
Period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory from 1550 - 1050 BC.
Conquest and trade brought wealth to the pharaohs.
Paths followed by traders.
Many of the lands that Egypt took over also had valuable resources for trade.
Ruled from 1503-1482 BC. She worked to increase Egyptian trade.
Many people did not think women should reulem so she dressed as a man and called herslf king.
She is remembered for building impressive monuments and temples.
Rames the Great - Ramses II
In the 1200's BC, he fought the Hittites, a group from Asia Minor. They fought for years and neither could defeat the other.
He became an army captain at age 10.
Ramses built a series of forts to strengthen the western frontier.
Many people consider him the last great Egyptian pharaoh.
He was a great warrior and builder.
He is known mostly for the great monuments he built.
He built the temple Karnak, Luxor, and Abu Simbel.
Why scribes were honored in Egyptian Society
They were members of the middle class. They worked for the government and temples.
They kept records and accounts for the state.
They wrote and copied religious and literary texts.
They did not have to pay taxes and many became wealthy.
Artisans, Artists amd Architects
Jobs required advanced skills.
Included: scultors, builders, carpenters, jewelers, metalworkers, leatherworkers.
Paid faily well for their work.
Merchants and Traders
Only a small group of Egyptians bacame merchants and traders. They were usually accompanied by soldiers on their travels.
Egypt created a professional army. They received land as payment and could keep treasures captured in war.
Farmers and other peasants
Made up the vast majority of Egypt's population They had to give crops to the pharaoh as taxes.
They could be asked to work on special projects, build pyramids, fight in the army. They were paid in grain.
Considered lower than farmers. Many were convcted criminals or prisoners captured in war. They had some legal rights and could earn their freedom.
Most were devoted to tehir homes and families. Some had jobs outside the home.
A few worked as prietesses, royal officials, administrators, and artisans.
Unlike most ancient women, they had a number of legal rights. They could own property, make contracts, and divorce their husbands. they could even keep their property after divorce.
Lives were not as structured as adults.
Played with toys such as dolls, tops and clay.
Played ballgames and hunted.
Most received an education in morals, writing, math and sports.
At age 14, boys left schol to enter their father's profession.
City that means, "House of Ramses."
A type of incense which was often used in ancient times to prepare a body for burial
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