the enclosure movement
Terms in this set (35)
the enclosure movement
this was in the 1600s when English farmers accelerated the process of fencing off, or enclosing, common lands into individual holdings, largely for the benefit of the already wealthy landholders
a system in which men and women work in their homes. the work was done by hand, and England could not produce enough cotton cloth to meet demand
was developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
This machine played an important role in the mechanization of textile production. Like the spinning wheel, it may be operated by a treadle or by hand. But, unlike the spinning wheel, it can spin more than one yarn at a time. The idea for multiple-yarn spinning was conceived about 1764 by James Hargreaves, an English weaver. In 1770, he patented a machine that could spin 16 yarns at a time. (643, 727)
1780's; Richard Arkwright; powered by horse or water; turned out yarn much faster than cottage spinning wheels, led to development of mechanized looms
a loom operated mechanically, run by water putting the loom side by side wit hthe spinning machines in factories, changed workers job from running it to watching it, Invented in 1787, invented by Edward Cartwright , it speeded up the production of textiles
A mechanical genius who invented the cotton gin, which was machine that separated the cotton from the seed. This greatly improved efficiency, and the South was able to clear more acres of cotton fields, which also increased the demand for slaves.
Invented the first steam engine in 1705. (Thomas Savery created first one in 1698. Maybe Newcomen's was more widespread.) Both burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a pump. By earl 1770s, many of the engines were operating successfully, though inefficiently, in English and Scottish mines.
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819)
an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
In 1825, George Stephenson finished the first effective locomotive. In 1830, his Rocket sped down the track of he just-completed- Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 mph.
Inventor of the steamboat, which as a boat that had a powerful steam engine. These enabled boats to travel upstream on rivers, thus increasing trade while at the same time improving inter and state transportation.
He developed an electric telegraph which allowed information to be transferred from one place to another by means of a strung wire using a dot-slash code. This was an early form of quick communication that helped tie people together regardless of distance.
Italian who built the first battery, hypothesized that electrical effect that luigi observed was a result of a chemical reaction, Discovered first electric cell and later created the battery, invented an electrochemical cell (1799)
Factory Act of 1833
limited the factory workday for children between 9 and 13 to 8 hours and that of adolescents between 14 and 18 to 12 hours-made no effort to regulate hours of work for children at home or in small businesses-children under 9 were to be enrolled by schools to be established by factory owners-broke pattern of whole families working together in the factory because efficiency required standardized shifts for all workers
economic system; people invested in trade & goods for profit; started because of money economy (money instead of barter); during high middle ages; new trading companies created
type of capitalism occurring during the Industrial Revolution when capitalists were involved in producing and manufacturing goods themselves , often using mechanized and industrialized methods of production
division of labor
Manufacturing technique that breaks down a craft into many simple and repetitive tasks that can be performed by unskilled workers. Pioneered in the pottery works of Josiah Wedgwood and in other eighteenth-century factories, increasing productivity, (603)
components of any device designed to specifications which insure that they will fit within any device of the same type. This streamlines the manufacturing process, since all pieces are guaranteed to fit with all others, and it similarly creates the opportunity for replacement parts.
The manufacture of many identical products by the division of labor into many small repetitive tasks. This method was introduced into the manufacture of pottery by Josiah Wedgwood and into the spinning of cotton thread by Richard Arkwright. (602)
Type of business entity which legally has no separate existence from its owner. The owner assumes all debts, and business is done in his or her own name and there is only one owner.
a contract between two or more persons who agree to pool talent and money and share profits or losses
an organization that is authorized by law to carry on an activity but treated as though it were a single person
total control over an entire product or service
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Eighteenth-century English intellectual who warned that population growth threatened future generations because, in his view, population growth would always outstrip increases in agricultural production. (p. 867)
"Iron Law of Wages"-wealthy English stockbroker and leading economist-coldly spelled out the pessimistic implications of Malthus's thought-his iron law of wages stated that because of the pressure of pop. growth, wages would always sin to subsistence level. With more food came more children, neverending cycle.
Believed that public problems should dealt with on a rational scientific basis. Believed in the idea of the greatest good for the greatest number. Wrote, Principles of Morals and Legislation.
A liberal ideology promoted by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). Based on the writings of John Locke (1632-1704), it argues that the best social and political policies are those that produce - in Bentham's words - "the greatest good for the greatest number" and are therefore the most useful, which, to him, meant liberalism. Liberals supported the Enlightenment ideas of increased personal liberty and free trade in economics.
John Stuart Mill
English Philosopher, Benthamite, wrote "On Liberty", Essay that talked about problem of how to prortect the rights of individuals and minorities in the emerging age of mass electoral paricipation. Advocated right of workers to organize, equality for women, and universal suffrage
(1771-1858) British cotton manufacturer believed that humans would reveal their true natural goodness if they lived in a cooperative environment. Tested his theories at New Lanark, Scotland and New Harmony, Indiana, but failed
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
English inventor advocated the use of horses instead of oxen. Developed the seed drill and selective breeding.
government official, close to the king, likeable, sponsored taxes, "Champagne Charlie", sponsored taxes for: lead, glass, paper, paint & tea,
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