Hamilton Isaiah Test 4

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Isaiah 49.1-13 is clearly an expansion of what earlier text in Isaiah?
Isaiah 42.1-4
What two significant elements do these two "Servant" texts have in common?
method: weak/unsuccessful/failure
mission: salvation for nations/Gentiles
What weapon does the "Servant" use (compare Isa 11.4)?
word / teaching
Why does 49.2 indicate the weapon is "hidden"?
ready to be drawn out when needed
What contradiction appears in Isa 49.3-6?
Servant is both Israel and not Israel
How is this contradiction best explained?
since Israel cannot be the ideal servant, another who embodies the nation (e.g., king, messiah) becomes the ideal that old Israel could not
Where has the sentiment of Isa 49.4 appeared in Isaiah earlier?
42.2-3 (reed/wick)
What NT event illustrates one fulfillment of this text?
Jesus' prayer in Gethsemane shares
the same human perspective (troubled) and divine perspective (God's will be done)
What does Isa 49.5-6 hint as being Israel's real problem?
sin (not Babylonian exile)
What two things is the "Servant" supposed to be (49.6)?
a. light to nations
b. salvation to ends of earth
What later text in Isaiah does Isa 49.7 foreshadow?
Isa 52.13-53.12
What is the primary attribute of God as revealed here (49.10)?
compassion
What analogy for Israel dominates Isa 49-54?
widowed mother bereaved of her children
What two powerful figures describe God's devotion to Israel (49.15-16)?
a. mother's love for newborn child
b. slave owner bearing slave's name
What will be the proof of God's blessing to Israel (49.18-20)?
too many children
What purpose does Isa 50.1-3 serve in Isaiah's flow of logic?
another effort by Isaiah to explain that the pathetic plight of Israel is the consequence of her sin
What two pieces of documentation does Yahweh demand Israel consult for proof (50.1)?
a. divorce certificate
b. bill of sale for slaves
What unstated question lies behind the problem of 50.1?
how does one atone for sin?
What is the answer to this unstated question?
the servant will fix Israel's problem
What progression in regard to suffering is evident in the four Servant Songs?
42.1-4: no suffering
50.4-9: shameful treatment listed
49.1-6: hinted at in
49.4 52.13-53.12: shame/death graphically depicted
What uncommon designation of God appears four times in 50.4-9?
Lord Yahweh
What appears to be the significance of this designation?
to emphasize God's role as master
having authority, to which Israel must submit/obey/listen
What two negative things does the Servant deny in contradiction to 50.1?
a. never rebelled
b. never turned back
Who is the only prophet/servant who could fully claim what 50.5b does?
Jesus
What three physical forms of suffering are mentioned in 50.6?
a. beating/smiting
b. plucking (hair)
c. spitting
What is counter-cultural about 50.7-9?
typically the meek acceptance of punishment is
taken as a tacit admission of guilt, but the servant confidently maintains his innocence
What option does one have if he does not trust in Yahweh (50.11)?
light one's own fire
What connection does 51.1-8 have to 50.4-11?
content of servant's message to listen to
Why are the righteous so in need of Yahweh's reassurance?
only those who believed the
promises are troubled when they appear to be delayed or failed in some way
What is the gist of Yahweh's reassurance (51.2-3)?
Yahweh's track record in history gives sufficient basis to trust Yahweh can handle the seemingly impossible (e.g., Abraham/Sarah)
What two major points are contrasted in 51.4-6?
a. permanence of God's word/promises
b. transience of universe and humans
What phrase dominates and ties together 51.9-52.6?
the verb "awake" ("wake up")
How are we to understand the prayer of Israel in 51.9-11?
appeal by Israel out of their
doubt and limited understanding of Yahweh (Yahweh does not need to wake up)
What problem still plagues Israel (51.12-16), being equated with lack of trust in Yahweh?
fearing the powers or nations of this world
What descriptor is added to the widowed, childless Mother Israel (51.17-23?
drunk
What figure is used in 51.17-23 to emphasize Yahweh's judgment on Israel because of sin?
cup of God's wrath = consequences of Israel's sin = Yahweh's judgment against Israel
To what earlier vision of the ideal Israel does 52.1-6 allude?
4.2-6
What other text does the imagery of 52.2 seem to echo?
47.1: Babylon to sit in the dust
What is the nature of Isaiah's argument about Egypt and Assyria?
if God redeemed Israel from a place they freely went to, He will surely deliver from a place they were forced
What figure or image explains the meaning of 52.7-12?
besieged city awaits a runner who brings news from the frontlines, seen first by the watchmen, and the whole city rejoices
Isaiah 52.7-12 prepares the reader to expect what (esp. 52.10)?
overwhelming power
What does the reader get instead?
humiliation, suffering, loss (just the opposite)
What new revelation is made about Yahweh's servant in 52.13-53.12?
nothing that was not already present in embryonic form (although Isa 53 is obviously more detailed, etc.)
What is the first thing Isaiah says Yahweh's servant will do (52.13)?
succeed
The terms "high" and "lifted up" always refer to whom (6.1; 33.10; 57.15)?
God
The disfigurement of 52.14 (and 53.2-3) metaphorically refers to what?
not physical form, but the degree that the servant does not fit the world's definition of power & success
The term "despised" (53.3) more precisely means:
to give no thought / to think nothing of
Who or what is "Yahweh's arm" (53.1)?
the servant, i.e., he is God's means of salvation
All three verses of 53.4-6 emphasize what principle?
vicarious suffering of one on behalf of another as a substitutionary offering/sacrifice/atonement for the other's sins
How does one reconcile this point with the fact that Israel had already paid for her sins (40.2)?
personal suffering is a consequence of sin, but cannot truly atone for one's sins
The servant's silence (53.7) contrasts with what?
Israel's constant protests (40.27; 49.14; 63.15)
What is the real point of 53.7-9?
not that one is innocent or suffers unjustly (as many do), but that one voluntarily and selflessly submits to suffering solely for the good of another
Why is the servant exalted (53.12)?
because he sacrificed himself for the good of the other
How is the servant's sacrifice described (53.10)?
it is a guilt offering
How is the curse (53.8) reversed (53.10)?
the servant will have many (spiritual) children
What two NT passages speak of the messiah's suffering against the backdrop of 52.13-53.12?
a. Mark 9.12
b. 1 Peter 1.10-12
What insight does Acts 3.13 give to Peter's early preaching about Jesus?
the apostles spoke of the suffering of God's servant and his eventual glorification
What explicit point from 52.13-53.12 is made most frequently in NT quotations of this text?
the shocking, incredible aspect of God's message/purpose/plan
What emphasis is given to this point in John 12.38 and Rom 10.16?
the Jews were willfully blind and deaf to God's message
What emphasis is given to this point in Rom 15.21?
the Gentiles have never heard of God's message
Although it does not reference 52.13-53.12 explicitly, what NT text graphically portrays the shocking reversal theme of Isa 53?
the victorious Lion of Judah who turns out to be a slain lamb
What is the only part of 52.13-53.12 explicitly quoted in connection with the crucifixion?
Luke 22.37: that Jesus was numbered among transgressors (crucified with criminals)
Similarly, what part is alluded to in connection with Christ's death?
Isa 53.9: that Jesus was buried with the rich in his death (tomb of Joseph of Arimathea)
What NT text is thoroughly permeated by references to Isa 52.13-53.12?
1 Peter 2.21-25: the central point to which we are called as disciples to follow Jesus in suffering service
What elements from Isa 52.13-53.12 are evident?
a. Jesus suffered for us
b. he committed no sin or deceit
c. he was silent before his tormentors
d. he bore/carried away our sins e. we are healed by his wounds
f. we like sheep have gone astray
What is the purpose of 54.1-17, following immediately on the heels of 52.13-53.12?
call to respond to and participate in salvation accomplished by Servant of 52.13-53.12
What two metaphors dominate the imagery of 54.1-17?
54.1-10: restored mother/wife
54.11-17: rebuilt city
With what two earlier texts does 54.1-10 most directly connect?
a. 49.1-26 (parallel section of chiasm)
b. 51.17-23 (emphasized center of chiasm)
How is 54.1 significantly used in the NT?
Paul compares barren Sarah to fertile Hagar as example of how Christians are Sarah's spiritual children in fulfillment of 54.1
What three commands are given to Mother Jerusalem in 54.1-4?
a. sing
b. expand tent
c. not fear
How do each of these actions require faith?
actions take place prior to God's blessing
What is the ultimate basis of Israel's assurance (54.5-10)?
God's character
How certain does Yahweh make His promise to Israel (54.8-10)?
comparable to promise in Noah's day never to destroy the earth by flood again
Like its NT counterpart in Rev 21.18-21, what is does the rebuilt city symbolize (54.11-13)?
restoration of a relationship with God: this is the true wealth and glory of heaven
What is the true nature of security that Yahweh promises His people (54.14b-17a)?
not avoidance of troubles, but God's comforting presence in the midst of troubles
What is significant about how Isaiah uses the word "heritage" or "inheritance" (54.17)?
redefined from its normal usage for the land, equal to Israel's righteousness
What significant shift occurs in how Isaiah refers to the "servant" from 54.17 to the end?
only occurs in the plural as each of God's people that make up Israel benefit and serve