127 terms

Theories Exam


Terms in this set (...)

Psychodynamic - What causes distress?
-Feeling of dread resulting from repressed feelings, memories, desires (conflict with id, ego, superego; related to sex/aggression impulses)
-Overused defense mechanisms
Psychodynamic - How does change occur?
-Restructure personality
-Develop new insights
-Identify/correct old patterns of behavior
Psychodynamic - Role of counselor
-Understand client's motives
-Identify recurrent maladaptive patterns
-Interpret to the client his/her thoughts, feelings, behaviors
-Help clients work through unresolved conflicts and gain insight
Psychodynamic - Client's experience
Passive, free association
Psychodynamic - Pros from a diversity perspective
-First comprehensive theory of personality
-Recognition of early childhood events
-Coined the term unconscious
Psychodynamic - Cons from a diversity perspective
-Role of insight
-Based on upper class values
-No recognition of power and context
-Lacks empirical support
Adlerian - What causes distress?
Not fulfilling the universal life tasks
Adlerian - How does change occur?
-Behavior changes through self-improvement (moving from inferiority to superiority), increase social interest & community feeling
-Lifestyle Changes
Adlerian - Role of counselor
Psychological Investigator, Disclosure, Reorientation, Collaborator and Confidant
Adlerian - Pros from a diversity perspective
Social interest, contributing to others, focus on collective
Adlerian - Cons from a diversity perspective
Western model, self as the locus of change, not helpful if clients don't want to explore past experiences
Person-Centered - What causes distress?
-Give into conditions of worth
- Gap between ideal self (what is expected of us) and real self
Person-Centered - How does change occur?
Roger's 3 necessary & sufficient conditions:
-Accurate empathetic understanding
-Unconditional positive regard
Person-Centered - Role of counselor
Attentive & immersed presence, places main responsibility on client, focus on Roger's 3
Person-Centered - Client's experience
Client has capacity for awareness and self-directed change
Person-Centered - Pros from a diversity perspective
Strong multicultural perspective, empathy and respect, promote self-awareness
Person-Centered - Cons from a diversity perspective
Too much responsibility on client, lack of structure, individualistic concepts, mixed empirical support (how to measure empathy/congruence)
Behavior - What causes distress?
-Maladaptive behaviors that are learned/conditioned
-Not having proper behavior in repertoire to handle situation
-Maladaptive behaviors perpetrated by environment and self
Behavior - How does change occur?
Functional Assessment (ABC)
Behavior - Role of counselor
Consultant, problem solver, educator, assign homework
Behavior - Client's experience
Knowledge about self and own goals
Behavior - Pros from a diversity perspective
Specificity, task oriented, objectivity, focus on cognition and behavior, emphasis on present
Behavior - Cons from a diversity perspective
May focus on using variety of techniques in narrowly treating specific behavioral problem, focus on symptoms, little focus on emotional aspects
CBT - What causes distress?
-Irrational Thoughts (REBT)
-Distorted exaggerated thinking (CT)
-Thoughts exacerbated by family and culture
-"Should, if only, always, never, have to"
CBT - How does change occur?
-Detecting: bring irrational beliefs into awareness
-Discriminating: "must", "should", "ought", absolutes
-Debating: helps to change into rational beliefs
-Hypothesis Testing
CBT - Role of counselor
Teach clients about irrational thoughts and cognitive mistakes, encourage actions and behaviors to counter thoughts, formulate replacement thoughts
CBT - Pros from a diversity perspective
Concrete and clear, easy to follow, accessible to most people, translatable, teaches new methods for clients to use
CBT - Cons from a diversity perspective
Danger in imposing therapist's views, primary emphasis on thoughts while emotions are secondary
ACT - What causes distress?
Psychological Inflexibility -
-Experiential Avoidance (trying to avoid, suppress, or hide from unwanted thoughts/feelings) &
-Cognitive Fusion (You are your thoughts and feelings, attached to feelings because you believe they are your identity)
ACT - How does change occur?
-Cognitive defusion and mindfulness - "you are not your depression"
-Acceptance of unwanted thoughts and feelings
-Using values to create a commitment to action
ACT - Role of counselor
Must be psychologically flexible, acts as role model, sees client as context, teach skills & principles
ACT - Client's experience
Active participant, open to ideas of flexibility, contribute worldview and values toward change
ACT - Pros from a diversity perspective
Widely applicable and easily scaled, long-term value of a change in psychological flexibility
ACT - Cons from a diversity perspective
Foundational difference vs. CBT, necessity of client flexibility, few empirical studies confirming effectiveness
DBT - What causes distress?
Self-destructive behaviors are coping techniques for unbearable and negative emotions - emotional vulnerability & invalidating environment
Chain Analysis
Vulnerability (stressful event) →Prompting Event-→Links (thoughts/beliefs/emotions)→ Problem Behavior→ Consequences
DBT - How does change occur?
-Distress Tolerance
-Interpersonal Effectiveness
-Emotional Regulation
-"Wise Mind"
- using both emotional and reasonable minds
-Radical Acceptance & Change in Thinking
-Four Stages: Life in Hell, Quiet Desperation, Problems in Living, Incompleteness
DBT - Role of counselor
Counselor: Teaches skills, driven by principles, group counseling.
DBT - Pros from a diversity perspective
High success rate, meet the client where they are, individualistic
DBT - Cons from a diversity perspective
Client must be aware of problems, takes time, client needs to be motivated to change
Multicultural - What causes distress?
Microaggressions - everyday exchanges that send denigrating messages to individuals because of their group membership
-Negative Consequences - substance abuse, lower self-concept, mental distress, etc.
Multicultural - How does change occur?
-Client Changes when empowered -Counselor understands cultural identity, world view, appropriate intervention strategies, builds rapport and trust
Multicultural - Role of counselor
Address cultural differences, not expert, focus on strengths, experience and culture of client
Multicultural - Client's experience
Empowered through own cultural background
Multicultural - Pros from a diversity perspective
Addresses cultural identity and issues, empowers underrepresented clients
Multicultural - Cons from a diversity perspective
Requires enormous amounts of research and understanding of specific cultural backgrounds
Feminist - What causes distress?
-Oppression, constraints on groups (specifically women)
-Socialization of gender - giving away power
-Internalized messages
Feminist - How does change occur?
-Identify oppressions
-Empowerment: free from constraints
-Identify internalized messages, replace with self-enhancing beliefs
-Acquire skills to bring change in environment
-Develop sense of personal and social power
-Consciousness Raising, Social & Gender Role Analysis, Resocialization, Social Activism
Feminist - Role of counselor
Empowered relationship with client, demystify counseling process, ending oppression, committed to monitoring biases, egalitarian role, use of self-disclosure, avoids diagnostic labels
Feminist - Client's experience
Treat therapist as equal, expected to actively participate, workshops, engage in readings
Feminist - Pros from a diversity perspective
Emphasizes need for social change, egalitarian focus, reframing pathology as symptoms of living in unjust and oppressive world
Feminist - Cons from a diversity perspective
Has an agenda that is imposed on clients, social activism is controversial, avoids personal responsibility for distress, dev. by white middle class women
Family Systems - What causes distress?
-Dysfunction in the system
-Occurs by: miscommunication, perception of closeness, generational patterns
-Perpetuated by: serving a purpose, unintentionally maintained by family processes, handed down across generations
-Triangulation (3rd party involved in relieving stress)
-Emotional Cutoff (distance self from distress → more distress)
-Undifferentiated Self (unable to separate self from group)
-Relationships/System shown through Genogram
Family Systems - How does change occur?
-Detriangulation: facilitate awareness, find ways to communicate neutrality as third party, encourage direct communication between dyad
-Coaching: help clients move to new roles within family, work through anxiety, practice controlling emotional reactivity
Family Systems - Role of counselor
Remain neutral, become part of system, collaborate, encourage differentiation of self
Family Systems - Client's experience
Collaborate, evaluate family and relationships, willingness to address role and interactional issues, willing to admit the system has dysfunction
Family Systems - Pros from a diversity perspective
Fits with cultures that emphasize family, address structural and institutional inequality, connection to larger cultures
Family Systems - Cons from a diversity perspective
Balance between individual and collective, need to enter family's world, assumption that Western family is universal
Narrative - What causes distress?
Internalization of a problem
Narrative - How does change occur?
Separation of person from problem
through strengths based modifications to modify
perception + present counter story to problem
Narrative - Role of counselor
Participant-observer and process-facilitator, help construct preferred storyline, avoid diagnostic language
Narrative - Client's experience
Active participant, author willingness to view self as expert
Narrative - Pros from a diversity perspective
No diagnosing, client is expert, adaptable
Narrative - Cons from a diversity perspective
Client may want an expert, limited empirical research, no road map
SFBT - What causes distress?
-Occurs through ineffective behavior, negative focus, general life circumstances
-Not important where distress comes from
SFBT - How does change occur?
-Describe problem, develop well-formed goals, find exceptions to distress, through feedback/encouragement, evaluate progress using rating scales
-Goal Negotiation
-Miracle Question
SFBT - Role of counselor
Identify problem, no diagnostic labels, encourage clients to experiment, keep therapy brief - act as if each session is the last session
SFBT - Client's experience
Take action, try new things
SFBT - Pros from a diversity perspective
Positive orientation and nonpathologizing stance, collaborative, "not-knowing" position of counselor
SFBT - Cons from a diversity perspective
May want an expert, may feel like feelings invalidated
Genograms -
Describe & give approach
(family systems) pictorial representations of relationships and medical hx within a family system. Show patterns of functioning, inform therapist about what interventions may be useful.
Free association -
Describe & give approach
(psychoanalytic) freely share thoughts, random words, anything that comes to mind regardless of how coherent or appropriate they are
Interpretation -
Describe & give approach
(psychoanalytic) consists of analyst's point out, explaining, and even teaching the client the meanings of behavior that is manifested in dreams, free association, resistances, and the therapeutic relationship itself
Countering -
Describe & give approach
(Cognitive) challenging thoughts, feelings, behaviors of the client. Use Dysfunctional Thought Record - Types of irrational thoughts: Dichotomous thinking, mind-reading, self-centeredness, catastrophizing, mental filter, overgeneralizing, denial/minimization, fallacy of fairness.
Hypothesis testing -
Describe & give approach
(Cognitive) testing validity of thoughts/beliefs - could check with other people, or simply logically reason with thoughts
Externalizing the problem -
Describe & give approach
(Narrative) separate person from problem - talk about problem as it's own entity, personify problem
Progressive muscle relaxation -
Describe & give approach
(Behavior) practice relaxation, becomes habitual response, helpful with chronic pain and panic disorder
Lifestyle assessment -
Describe & give approach
(Adlerian) focused on structure and dynamics within the client's family, sibling, roles, etc.
Functional assessment -
Describe & give approach
(Behavior) attempt to determine contingencies maintaining problematic behavior - what function does the behavior serve? - ABC Model - Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence
Self-management -
Describe & give approach
(Behavior) personal application of behavior change tactics that produces a desired change
SMART goals -
Describe & give approach
Specific, Measurable, Agreed Upon, Realistic, Time-Based
"Dropping the rope" -
Describe & give approach
(ACT) metaphor of tug of war between you and your anxiety/distress - give up and drop the rope, stop attempting to control thoughts/emotions, free yourself up to use that energy toward something productive that may help to rid yourself of those
Immediacy -
Describe & give approach
(Person-Centered) response to something as it occurs within a session. 3 Types: Helper (reveals thoughts or feelings as they occur), Client (provides feedback about the client to them), Relationship (helper reveals feelings or thoughts about how they experience the relationship).
Self-disclosure -
Describe & give approach
(Person-Centered) intentional revelation of information about oneself, here and now relationship
"Rolling with Resistance" -
Describe & give approach
(Motivational Interviewing) avoid argument, show you've heard what's been said, encourage other person to come up with solutions or alternative behavior - used when client may not see need or have no desire for change - don't challenge them on it
Systematic desensitization -
Describe & give approach
(Behavior) create hierarchy of situations building up to facing an anxiety-provoking situation, in each step use relaxation techniques until comfortable
Cognitive restructuring -
Describe & give approach
(Cognitive) technique of cognitive therapy that teaches people how to improve themselves by replacing irrational beliefs with rational ones
Exposure therapy -
Describe & give approach
(Behavior) put client in stress-provoking situation and have them remain there until they become comfortable or extinction of stress
Miracle question -
Describe & give approach
(Solution-Focused Brief) evaluates what client wishes were different - if you woke up tomorrow and all your problems were solved, what would it look like?
Looking for exceptions -
Describe & give approach
(Solution-Focused Brief) asks client to identify times when their problem didn't stop them or wasn't interfering with them - what was different about those times? How did they do that?
Explain ABCDEF Model
(Cognitive) - Model of personality and intervention. Activating Event → Belief → Consequence (emotional/behavioral) → Disputing Intervention (impacts beliefs too) → Effective Philosophy → new Feeling
Explain ABC Model
(Behavioral) - Antecedent → Behavior → Consequence (Functional Analysis/Assessment)
Explain ADDRESSING Model
Age/Generational Influences, Disability Status (developmental), Disability Status (acquired), Religion and Spiritual Orientation, Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Sexual Orientation, Indigenous Heritage, National Origin, Gender
Laura Brown -
Carl Jung -
Insoo Kim Berg -
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
Steven Hayes -
Alfred Adler -
Marsha Linehan -
Pamela Hays -
Michael White -
Carl Rogers -
Albert Ellis -
Abraham Maslow -
Aaron Beck -
Hannah Levenson -
Virginia Satir -
Family Systems
Inferiority feelings -
Feelings that motivate us to strive for mastery, success and completion. We are driven to overcome our sense of inferiority.
Actualizing tendency -
A directional process of striving toward realization, fulfillment, autonomy, and self-determination
"Not-knowing" approach -
Enter the client's world as fully as possible by asking a lot of questions out of curiosity and intense interest. Client is the expert on themselves
Transference and countertransference -
The client's unconscious shifting to the analyst of feelings and fantasies that are reactions to significant others in the client's past
Corrective emotional experience -
Bring the unconscious emotion to the surface - re-exposure under favorable circumstances to an emotional situation with which one could not cope with in the past.
Mindfulness -
Involves being aware of our experiencing in a receptive way and engaging in activity based on this non judgmental awareness.
Role of insight and understanding in Behavior Therapy
Change can occur without insight into underlying dynamics or understanding the origins of a psychological problem
Difference between acceptance and approval, and pain and suffering, in 3rd wave approaches
Acceptance deals more with acknowledging that the pain is there, allowing it to exist, but not necessarily approving of it - can still change it. Pain is normal in life, it becomes suffering when we interact in inflexible ways with it - fight against it, causes more pain for us.
Characteristics of psychodynamic approaches, according to Shedler
a. focus on affect and expression of emotion
b. exploration of attempts to avoid distressing thoughts and feelings
c. identification of recurring themes and patterns
d. discussion of past experience (developmental focus)
e. focus on interpersonal relations
f. focus on therapy relationship
Freud's structure of personality
-Id - illogical, amoral, largely unconscious, seat of instincts, ruled by pleasure principle, never matures, cannot tolerate tension, at birth we are 100% id
-Ego - governs, controls, regulates personality, ruled by reality principle, does logical thinking and formulates plans of action, checks and controls the blind impulses of the id
-Superego - judicial branch, moral code, defines actions as good/bad right/wrong, represents the ideal, strives for perfection, represents traditional values and ideals of society, related to reward/punishment
Rogers' core conditions
Unconditional positive regard, accurate empathetic understanding, congruence
5 basic principles of motivational interviewing
Express Empathy
Develop discrepancy
Avoid confrontation
Roll with resistance
Focus on self-efficacy
"Three life tasks"
Building friendships, establishing intimacy, contributing to society
Steps in solution-focused brief therapy
1) Client describes problem.
2) Therapist and client develop well-formed goals.
3) Find exceptions to problem.
4) Therapist offers client summary feedback, provides encouragement, suggests things at end of sessions.
5) Therapist and client evaluate progress being made by using rating scale.
Different types of questions in postmodern approaches
a. Pre-therapy change
b. Exception questions
c. Miracle question
d. Scaling questions
e. Externalization/Deconstruction
f. Search for unique outcomes
g. Alternative stories/reauthoring
h. Unique possibility questions
"Growth model vs. Medical model" in Adlerian approach
Patients are not seen as being sick or needing to be cured or have a diagnosis (medical model). Rather they view clients as not having "good" thoughts and see this as an area that can be changed and improved (growth model).
"Shoulds, oughts, and musts"
Discriminating types of irrational thoughts (REBT)
4 types of skills in DBT
-Mindfulness (aware of present moment) ACCEPTANCE
-Distress Tolerance (tolerate pain) ACCEPTANCE
-Interpersonal Effectiveness (how to assert needs while maintaining self-respect and relationships with others) CHANGE
-Emotion Regulation (how to change emotions you want to change) CHANGE
Role of values in ACT
Guide your committed action
6 principles of feminist therapy
1) Personal is political.
2) Commitment to social change.
3) Women's voices and experiences are valued.
4) Counseling relationship is egalitarian.
5) Focus on strengths and new definition of "distress" as communication about unjust system.
6) All types of oppression are recognized.
3 ways feminist therapists can share power with the client
a. Sensitive to own power (ability to abuse power) in relationship
b. Actively focus on power clients have
c. Demystify the counseling relationship