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Microbiology An Evolving Science Ch 7
Terms in this set (46)
Oriented such that the two strands are in opposite directions. Commonly refers to a nucleic acid double helix with one strand in the 5′-to-3′ orientation and the other strand in the 3′-to-5′ orientation.
Linked rings of DNA found immediately after replication of circular chromosomes.
The insertion of DNA into a plasmid where it can be replicated.
Horizontal gene transmission involving cell-cell contact. In bacteria, pili draw together the donor and recipient cell envelopes, and a protein complex transmits DNA across. In ciliated eukaryotes, a conjugation bridge forms between two cells connecting their cytoplasm, through which micronuclei are exchanged.
A sequence of overlapping fragments of cloned DNA that are contiguous along a chromosome.
To lose secondary and tertiary structure in a protein or nucleic acid because of high temperature or chemical treatment.
DNA control sequence
A region of DNA, such as the promoter region, that controls the expression of structural genes but is not itself transcribed to RNA.
An enzyme cells use to form a covalent bond at a nick in the phosphodiester backbone. Also used in molecular biology laboratories to join pieces of DNA.
A noncoding DNA region in eukaryotes that can lead to activation of transcription when bound by the appropriate transcription factor. Its location on the chromosome can be far removed from the regulated gene.
An enzyme that cleaves DNA from the end.
The complete genetic content of an organism. The sequence of all the nucleotides in a haploid set of chromosomes.
Also called clone library or clone pool. A population of host bacteria, each of which carries a DNA molecule cloned from an organism’s genome. The set of clones contains overlapping DNA fragments representing the entire genome.
A protein that helps compact eukaryotic chromosomes in nucleosomes.
The transfer of a pathogen from one organism into another, nonprogeny organism.
The annealing of a nucleic acid strand with another nucleic acid strand containing a complementary sequence of bases. The binding of one nucleic acid strand with a complementary strand.
In eukaryotic genes, an intervening sequence that does not code for protein and is spliced out of the mRNA prior to translation.
The study of community genomes, or metagenomes.
The looped coils of a bacterial chromosome.
Short fragments of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand during DNA synthesis.
A collection of genes that are in tandem on a chromosome and are transcribed into a single RNA.
The region of a bacterial chromosome where DNA replication initiates.
A DNA sequence in which the top and bottom strands have the same sequence in the 5′-to-3′ direction.
The bond that covalently attaches to adjacent nucleotides in a nucleic acid.
An extrachromosmal genetic element that may be present in some cells.
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
A method to amplify DNA in vitro using many cycles of DNA denaturation, primer annealing, and DNA polymerization with a heat-stable polymerase.
An RNA polymerase that synthesizes short RNA primers complementary to a DNA template to launch DNA replication.
A noncoding DNA regulatory region immediately upstream of a structural gene that is needed for transcription initiation.
An enzymatic activity of some nucleic acid polymerases that attempts to correct mispaired bases.
A gene that is no longer functional.
A nitrogenous base with fused rings found in nucleotides; examples are adenine and guanine.
A single-ring nitrogenous base found in nucleotides; examples are cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
A method of DNA sequencing that relies on the detection of pyrophosphate released upon nucleotide incorporation.
A type of antibiotic drug that inhibits DNA synthesis by targeting bacterial topoisomerases such as DNA gyrase.
The process by which a donor DNA molecule replaces a segment of a host genome or is inserted into a host genome.
A group of genes and operons that is coordinately regulated and shares a common biochemical function.
During DNA synthesis, the region of the chromosome that is being unwound.
A complex of DNA polymerase and other accessory molecules that performs DNA replication.
Also called restriction enzyme. A bacterial enzyme that cleaves double-stranded DNA within a specific short sequence, usually a palindrome.
A DNA sequence recognized and cleaved by a restriction endonuclease.
The mode of DNA replication whereby each new double helix contains one old, parental strand and one newly synthesized daughter strand.
A plasmid with origins of replication recognized by both bacteria and eukaryotes.
A protein that keeps DNA polymerase affixed to DNA during replication.
A string of nucleotides that encodes a functional RNA molecule.
Termination (ter) site
A sequence of DNA that halts replication of DNA by DNA polymerase.
An enzyme that can change the supercoiling of DNA.
In genetics, the passage of genes from parent to offspring. In disease, transmission of a pathogen from parent to offspring.
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