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Ch 13 Trace minerals

STUDY
PLAY
Which of the following is a characteristic of the trace minerals?
a. A deficiency sign common to many trace minerals is dermatitis
b. The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
c. Deficiencies are more difficult to recognize in children than in adults
d. The amount of all trace minerals in the average person totals approximately 100 grams
The amounts in foods are dependent, in part, on soil composition
A measure of the amount at which a nutrient is absorbed and used by the body is termed
bioavailability
Which of the following is not a general feature of the trace minerals?
a. Mild deficiencies are easy to overlook
b. They are rarely found in dietary supplements
c. Most are toxic at only 2½-7 times the requirements
d. The amounts contained in supplements are free from regulation by the FDA
They are rarely found in dietary supplements
What is the ionic state of ferrous iron?
+2
What is the ionic state of ferric iron?
+3
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
Hemoglobin
What is the oxygen-carrying protein of muscle cells?
Myoglobin
If a person's body has a total of 5 grams of iron, how many grams would be found in the hemoglobin?
4
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron transport?
a. Albumin is the major iron transport protein in the blood
b. Transferrin in the blood carries iron to the bone marrow
c. Hemochromatosis results from inability to absorb and transport iron
d. Ferritin functions by transporting iron from the spleen to the bone marrow
Transferrin in the blood carries iron to the bone marrow
Which of the following is a protein that carries iron through the circulation to the tissues?
a. Albumin
b. Transferrin
c. Hemosiderin
d. Metallothionein
Transferrin
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron absorption?
a. MPF in plant foods enhances overall iron absorption
b. Ferritin in red meat interferes with ferrous iron absorption
c. Absorption of heme iron is about 50% higher than nonheme iron
d. Transferrin released from pancreatic juice regulates iron uptake from mucosal cells
Absorption of heme iron is about 50% higher than non heme iron
Which of the following compounds provides a major storage reservoir for iron?
a. Ferritin
b. Myoglobin
c. Transferrin
d. Hemoglobin
Ferritin
All of the following are body proteins directly involved in iron metabolism except
a. ferritin.
b. transferrin.
c. hemosiderin.
d. metallothionein.
Metallothionein
All of the following characteristics are shared by iron and zinc except
a. absorption is inhibited by fiber.
b. absorption is inhibited by cow's milk.
c. transport in the blood is primarily by albumin.
d. absorption rises with increased needs of the body.
transport in the blood is primarily by albumin
Which of the following characteristics is shared by zinc and iron?
Proteins in the blood are needed for their transport
How does vitamin C enhance iron absorption when consumed in the same meal?
It keeps iron in the reduced ferrous form
What fraction of the total iron content of a normal diet is heme iron?
1/10
What percentage of the iron in a hamburger is nonheme iron?
60
Which of the following foods provides iron in the most absorbable form?
a. Rice
b. Spinach
c. Chicken
d. Orange juice
Chicken
Which of the following is a feature of iron absorption?
a. It is lower in people with iron toxicity
b. It is higher in people with iron deficiency
c. It is lower when iron is in the form of heme rather than non-heme
d. It is higher in adults than children due to more mature intestinal function
It is higher in people with iron deficiency
Your cousin Emily is a vegetarian. Since you have just learned in your nutrition class that nonheme iron is absorbed less efficiently than heme iron, you want to make sure Emily is getting enough iron. What should you recommend Emily do to maximize her iron absorption?
a. Choose spinach as her main source of iron
b. Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of milk
c. Eat her nonheme iron sources with a glass of orange juice
d. Refrain from any major activity after eating to aid digestion/absorption of iron
Eat her non-heme iron sources with a glass of orange juice
Among the following, which does not contain the MFP factor?
a. Tuna
b. Spinach
c. Hamburger
d. Chicken leg
spinach
What is the function of MFP factor?
Enhances iron absorption
When calculating the amount of iron that can be absorbed from a meal, all of the following factors are of major importance except
a. EDTA content.
b. phytate content.
c. vitamin C content.
d. MFP factor content.
EDTA content
Which of the following nutrients enhances iron absorption from the intestinal tract?
a. Biotin
b. Calcium
c. Vitamin D
d. Vitamin C
Vitamin C
Absorption of iron from supplements is improved by taking them with
meat
Which of the following characteristics are shared by iron and zinc?
a. Neither functions in the maintenance of blood glucose
b. Neither is circulated from the pancreas to the intestines and back to the pancreas
c. Both are absorbed into intestinal mucosal cells and bound to metallothionein for transport first to the liver
d. Both are absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells but may then be lost by normal villus cell renewal processes
Both are absorbed into intestinal epithelial cells but then may be lost by normal villus cells during the renewal process
Under normal circumstances, what is the average percentage of dietary iron that is absorbed?
18
All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
a. tea.
b. coffee.
c. sugars.
d. phytates.
sugars
How would the body typically respond to loss of blood from hemorrhage?
a. More transferrin is produced to allow absorption and transport of more iron
b. The average life of the red blood cell is increased in order to allow better tissue oxygenation
c. Fewer iron storage proteins are produced, which increases the amount of iron available for synthesis of new red blood cells
d. The liver and muscles release their supply of stored red blood cells, which compensates, in part, for the decrease in red blood cell concentration of the circulation
More transferrin is produced to allow absorption and transport of more iron
All of the following are chief storage sites for surplus iron except the
a. liver.
b. spleen.
c. muscle.
d. bone marrow.
Muscle
Which of the following is known as an iron-overload protein?
a. Transferrin
b. Hemosiderin
c. Marrowferritin
d. Metallothionein
Hemosiderin
A person with high blood levels of hepcidin responds by
Decreasing iron absorption
What is hepcidin?
A liver derived hormone that helps regulate iron absorption and transport
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron utilization?
a. Most of the body's iron is recycled
b. The chief storage site for iron is the intestinal epithelium
c. Iron is absorbed better from supplements than from foods
d. Iron from nonheme food sources is absorbed better than that from heme food sources
Most of the body's iron is recycled
What is the average lifespan of red blood cells?
4 months
Approximately how many people worldwide are thought to be affected by iron-deficiency anemia?
1.6 billion
About how much iron is absorbed from a vegetarian diet compared with an omnivorous diet?
1/2 as much
What is the chief function of hemosiderin?
Stores excess body iron
Approximately how much iron is lost daily by adults from urine, sweat, and shed skin?
1 mg
All of the following are known to reduce the absorption of iron except
a. phytates.
b. MFP factor.
c. soybean protein.
d. tannic acid in tea.
MFP factor
Which of the following population groups is least susceptible to iron-deficiency anemia?
a. Older infants
b. Children 2-10 years of age
c. Women of childbearing age
d. Men 20-45 years of age
Men 20-45
Which of the following is found in the first stage of iron deficiency?
a. Iron stores decline, as assessed by serum ferritin
b. Hemoglobin levels fall, as assessed by complete blood count
c. Red blood cell count falls, as assessed by hematocrit count
d. Hemoglobin synthesis declines, as assessed by erythrocyte protoporphyrin
Iron stores decline, as assessed by serum ferritin
Which of the following represents the order of the stages of iron deficiency?
a. Iron stores decline - iron transport diminishes - hemoglobin synthesis falls
b. Hemoglobin synthesis falls - iron transport diminishes - iron stores decline
c. Iron transport diminishes - hemoglobin synthesis falls - iron stores decline
d. Iron transport diminishes - iron stores decline - hemoglobin synthesis falls
Iron stores decline, iron transport diminishes, hemoglobin synthesis fails
What is the major cause of iron deficiency?
Poor nutrition
Iron deficiency in children is likely to result from a diet that overemphasizes
a. milk.
b. cereals.
c. vegetables.
d. dried beans.
milk
Taking into account the efficiency of intestinal absorption of iron, approximately how much dietary iron must be consumed to account for the iron lost by donating a pint of blood?
15 mg
Which of the following individuals would most likely not need an iron supplement?
a. Two-year-old
b. Elderly female
c. Pregnant female
d. Adolescent female
Elderly female
What is erythrocyte protoporphyrin?
hemoglobin precursor
The erythrocyte protoporphyrin level is used as an indicator of
a. late iron toxicity.
b. early iron toxicity.
c. late iron deficiency.
d. early iron deficiency.
Late Iron deficiency
The most common tests to diagnose iron deficiency include all of the following measures except
a. size of red blood cells.
b. number of red blood cells.
c. DNA content of red blood cells.
d. hemoglobin content of red blood cells.
DNA content of red blood cells
What type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
a. Hemolytic
b. Megaloblastic
c. Microcytic hypochromic
d. Macrocytic hyperchromic
Microcytic hypochromic
Low levels of blood hemoglobin most likely indicate a deficiency of
Iron
Which of the following symptoms would ordinarily not be found in individuals with iron-deficiency anemia?
a. Fatigue
b. Headaches
c. Concave nails
d. Diminished sense of smell
Diminished sense of smell
Why are hemoglobin and hematocrit tests of limited usefulness in the assessment of iron status?
a. They are expensive to perform
b. They are notoriously inaccurate
c. They are late indicators of iron deficiency
d. The range of normal value is usually wide
They are late indicators of iron deficiency
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency?
a. Blood erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels decline as anemia worsens
b. Iron supplements are not as effective at treating anemia as is proper nutrition
c. People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves
d. The concave nails of iron-deficiency anemia result from abnormal ferritin levels
People with anemia generally become fatigued only when they exert themselves
Which of the following is a characteristic of iron deficiency and behavior?
a. Erythrocyte iron levels fall before mental alertness is affected
b. Moderate iron deficiency promotes constipation and hyperactivity
c. Mild iron deficiency impairs energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis
d. Iron deficiency increases risk for infections that promote dysfunctional behavior
Mild iron deficiency impairs energy metabolism and neurotransmitter synthesis
Which of the following is descriptive of iron deficiency and behavior?
a. The practice of pica may enhance iron absorption
b. Changes in behavior precede the appearance of anemia
c. The practice of pica may delay the onset of iron-induced behavioral changes
d. Adults are more resistant to iron-induced behavioral changes than children
Changes in behavior precede the appearance of anemia
Iron overload is also known as
Hemochromatosis
What is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
Pica
Common terms that describe the body's accumulation of excess iron include all of the following except
a. iron overload.
b. hemosiderosis.
c. hemoglobinemia.
d. hemochromatosis
Hemoglobinemia
Why are people with iron overload at increased risk for infections?
a. Excess tissue iron destroys vitamin C
b. Iron-rich blood favors growth of bacteria
c. Iron-rich blood impairs the immune system
d. Excess tissue iron interferes with antibiotic function
Iron rich blood favors the growth of bacteria
Which of the following is a feature of the disorder hereditary hemochromatosis?
a. It is characterized by acrodermatitis
b. It is found primarily in women of child-bearing age
c. It is associated with defects of copper and zinc absorption
d. It is the most common genetic disorder in the United States
It is the most common genetic disorder in the US
Which of the following disorders may be linked with the presence of high blood iron?
a. Dermatitis
b. Diverticulosis
c. Heart disease
d. Neural tube defects
Heart disease
Which of the following describes one aspect of iron toxicity?
a. Among men in the United States, it is twice as common as iron-deficiency anemia
b. In adults, the consumption of alcohol is somewhat protective against absorption of excess iron
c. In most people with this disorder, infections are rare because bacteria are killed by excess iron in the blood
d. It is usually caused by a virus that attacks the intestinal mucosal cells leading to unregulated and excessive iron absorption
Among men in the US, it is twice as common as iron deficiency anemia
The most common cause of iron overload is
A genetic predisposition
What population group is at the highest risk for iron overload?
adult men
For every 10 adult males with iron deficiency, how many have iron overload?
20
Signs of iron toxicity include all of the following except
a. apathy.
b. fatigue.
c. hypochromic anemia.
d. increases in infections.
hypochromic anemia
What percent of the RDA for iron is consumed by the typical woman?
67
Approximately how much iron would be provided by a balanced diet supplying 2000 kcalories?
12 mg
Approximately how much higher is the RDA for iron for a vegetarian woman of childbearing age compared with her nonvegetarian counterpart?
80%
Which of the following is the most effective and least costly strategy for preventing an iron deficiency?
a. Consume iron supplements at a level 2-3 times the RDA
b. Switch to iron cooking utensils and eat 4 servings of red meat daily
c. Eat small amounts of citrus products and increase intake of low-fat milk
d. Eat small quantities of meat, fish, and poultry frequently together with liberal amounts of vegetables and legumes
Eat small quantities of meat, fish, and poultry frequently together with liberal amounts of vegetables and legumes
Which of the following is a feature of iron nutrition?
a. Iron plays an important role in the synthesis of thyroxine
b. On average, people absorb about 50-60% of dietary iron
c. On average, women do not eat enough iron-containing foods
d. Iron deficiency represents the second most common mineral deficiency in the United States
On average, women do not eat enough iron containing food
Which of the following foods provides the greatest amount of iron per serving?
a. Yogurt
b. Skim milk
c. Pinto beans
d. American cheese
Pinto beans
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iron?
45 mg
A child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
a. milk.
b. red meat.
c. fresh fruits.
d. yellow vegetables.
red meats
In the United States, iron is currently added to which of the following foods?
a. Milk and cheese
b. Breads and cereals
c. Peanut butter and jellies
d. Orange juice and tomato juice
Breads and cereals
If a normal, healthy young adult woman loses an average of 2 mg/day of iron from the body, approximately what minimum amount (mg/day) should she consume from the diet to prevent negative iron balance?
a. 2
b. 5
c. 11
d. 19
11
Which of the following would represent a source of possible iron contamination?
a. An iron frypan
b. An iron chelate
c. A ferric iron supplement
d. A ferrous iron supplement
An iron frypan
Which of the following is a common example of iron contamination in the diet?
a. Using an iron skillet to scramble eggs can triple their iron content
b. Cooking acidic foods in a copper pot can extract chelate iron from the pot
c. Simmering acidic foods in glass dishes leads to leaching of iron salts from the glass
d. Cooking leafy vegetables in a galvanized pot leads to a six-fold increase in iron content
Using an iron skillet to scramble eggs can triple their iron content
Which of the following has been shown to improve absorption of iron from iron supplements?
a. Taking then with milk
b. Taking them with orange juice
c. Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals
d. Taking them in the form of the ferric salt rather than the ferrous salt
Taking them on an empty stomach rather than with meals
Why is taking vitamin C ineffective at enhancing iron absorption from standard iron supplements?
a. The iron in the supplement is in a chelated form
b. The iron in the supplement is already in the ferrous form
c. The iron in the supplement binds irreversibly with vitamin C
d. The iron supplement already contains MFP to enhance absorption
The iron in the supplement is already in the ferrous form
Which of the following is a common side effect from taking iron supplements?
a. Itching
b. Diarrhea
c. Constipation
d. Black tongue
Constipation
What is the RDA for iron for females 19-50 years old?
18 mg
An enzyme in which zinc or copper is an integral part of its structure is classified as a(n)
Metalloenzyme
Which of the following defines an association between a protein and a function of zinc?
a. Thyroxine: zinc transporter
b. Globulin: transports zinc into cells
c. Transferrin: essential to zinc excretion
d. Metallothionein: promotes zinc homeostasis
Metallothionein: promotes zinc homeostasis
Which of the following is a major binding protein for zinc?
a. Ligand
b. Ferritin
c. Hemosiderin
d. Metallothionein
Metallothionein
Which of the following is a feature of zinc in nutrition?
a. Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
b. The body's primary excretory route is urine
c. Good food sources are whole-grain products
d. Toxicity symptoms include constipation and low body temperature
Pancreatic enzymes are rich in zinc
Which of the following is known to regulate the absorption of zinc?
a. Metallothionein in the intestinal cells
b. Zinc-releasing enzymes in the intestinal mucosa
c. Pancreatic juice containing zinc-absorption enhancers
d. Bile acids which form a complex with zinc to promote its absorption
Metallothionein in the intestinal cells
What is the bioavailability of dietary zinc?
15-40%
Which mineral undergoes enteropancreatic circulation during normal metabolism?
Zinc
Zinc is known to play an important role in all of the following functions except
a. wound healing.
b. synthesis of retinal.
c. production of sperm.
d. oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids
What is the chief transport substance for zinc in the circulation?
Albumin
What dietary ratio of iron to zinc inhibits zinc absorption?
a. 0.5 to 1
b. 1 to 1
c. Less than 2 to 1
d. Greater than 2 to 1
Greater than 2 to 1
Which of the following would be the minimum amount of dietary iron known to impair zinc absorption in an individual with a zinc intake of 15 mg?
a. 5 mg
b. 15 mg
c. 30 mg
d. 60 mg
30 mg
Which of the following conditions is known to lead to copper deficiency?
a. Excess zinc
b. Excess protein
c. Insufficient iodine
d. Insufficient calcium
Excess zinc
Which of the following is a known side effect of prolonged ingestion of excessive amounts of zinc supplements?
a. Iron toxicity due to increased ferritin synthesis
b. Zinc salt deposits in soft tissues such as the heart and kidneys
c. Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption
d. Mineral-binding protein deficiency due to a decrease in metallothionein production
Copper deficiency due to interference with copper absorption
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for zinc?
40 mg
Deficiency of which of the following minerals is associated with retarded growth and sexual development in children?
Zinc
Conditions associated with zinc deficiency include all of the following except
a. altered taste.
b. kidney failure.
c. abnormal night vision.
d. poor healing of wounds.
Kidney failure
All of the following are recognized symptoms of zinc deficiency except
a. anemia.
b. altered taste acuity.
c. impaired vision in dim light.
d. increased susceptibility to infection.
Anemia
Which of the following represents the most reliable dietary source of zinc?
a. Nuts and oils
b. Milk and yogurt
c. Fruits and vegetables
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals
Meats and whole grain cereals
Zinc is highest in foods that also contain a high amount of
a. fat.
b. fiber.
c. protein.
d. carbohydrate.
Protein
All of the following are known to result from excessive zinc intake except
a. inhibition of iron absorption.
b. galvanized liver and kidneys.
c. inhibition of copper absorption.
d. decreases in high-density lipoproteins.
Galvanized liver and kidneys
Under which of the following conditions are certain supplements of zinc reported to be beneficial?
a. In the treatment of colds
b. In the treatment of Menkes syndrome
c. In the treatment of toxicity from certain other metals
d. In the treatment of slow growth syndrome in U.S. children
In treatments of colds
What formulation of zinc has been found effective in treating the symptoms of the common cold?
a. Zinc chelator
b. Zinc gluconate
c. Zinc plus ferrous iron
d. Zinc plus copper salt
Zinc gluconate
Commercially available zinc-containing lozenges are advertised to be effective against
a. fatigue.
b. vitamin A toxicity.
c. the common cold.
d. slowing of the BMR.
The common cold
Which of the following is not a feature of zinc supplements?
a. They induce nausea and bad taste reactions when administered in zinc lozenges
b. They reduce the incidence of goiter in developing countries
c. They reduce the incidence of diarrhea-related deaths in children
d. They reduce the incidence of pneumonia-related deaths in the elderly
They reduce the incidence of goiter in developing countries
Goiter is caused primarily by a deficiency of
Iodine
What mineral is critical to the synthesis of thyroxine?
Iodine
a 438(K) 117. One of the thyroid gland hormones is called
a. thyroxine.
b. goitrogen.
c. thiostimulating hormone.
d. tissue stimulating hormone.
Thyroxine
What is the primary function of the thyroid hormones?
a. Precursors for hemoglobin synthesis
b. Counteract a deficiency of goitrogens
c. Control the rate of oxygen use by cells
d. Regulate acetylcholine concentrations in the central nervous system
Control the rate of oxygen use by the cells
The most common cause of iodine deficiency is
a. insufficient intake of iodine from foods.
b. overconsumption of other trace elements.
c. overconsumption of anti-thyroid substances.
d. pituitary deficiencies of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
Insufficient intake of iodine from foods
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency?
a. Increase in its size to trap more iodine
b. Increase in its size to trap more thyroxine
c. Increased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone
d. Decreased release of thyroid-stimulating hormone
Increase its size to trap more iodine
Which of the following may result from iodine deficiency?
a. Gout
b. Goiter
c. Anemia
d. Hypertension
Goiter
A woman with a severe iodine deficiency during pregnancy may give birth to a child with
a. anemia.
b. rickets.
c. cretinism.
d. allergies.
Cretinism
What is a goitrogen?
a. One of the hormones produced by the thyroid gland
b. A substance that enhances absorption of dietary iodide
c. A substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
d. A compound used to supplement salt as a way to increase iodide intake
A substance that interferes with the functioning of the thyroid gland
A person ingesting large amounts of thyroid antagonist substances is at high risk of developing
a. cretinism.
b. simple goiter.
c. high blood T3 levels.
d. high blood thyroxine levels.
simple goiter
Which of the following foods are known to contain goitrogens?
a. Shellfish
b. Whole grains
c. Cauliflower and broccoli
d. Blueberries and raspberries
Cauliflower and broccoli
Which of the following fruits are known to contain substances that inhibit the functioning of the thyroid gland?
a. Apples and pears
b. Lemons and limes
c. Avocados and mangos
d. Peaches and strawberries
Peaches and strawberries
Which of the following is a prominent feature of mild iodine deficiency in children?
a. Demineralization
b. Growth retardation
c. Discoloration of teeth
d. Poor performance in school
Poor performance in school
What is the origin of goitrogens in the diet?
a. Naturally occurring
b. Food industry additives
c. Excessive use of fortified salt
d. Hydrogenation of certain minerals
Naturally occuring
You have just been hired by the World Health Organization to promote nutrition education and policies in a small country in Asia, whose population has a high prevalence of goiter. Which of the following policies would be the best to implement with respect to iodine status, cost, and efficiency?
a. Fortify the salt with iodine
b. Promote free iodine supplements for all who want them
c. Educate the population to avoid all goitrogens in their diet
d. Educate the population to spend more time at the beach as seawater, sea mist, and seafood are sources of iodine
Fortify the salt with iodine
Which of the following is a feature of iodide utilization?
a. It is an integral part of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone
b. Ingestion of plants of the cabbage family stimulates iodide uptake
c. A deficiency or a toxicity leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland
d. The amount in foods is unrelated to the amount of iodine present in the soil
A deficiency or toxicity leads to enlargement of the thyroid gland
Which of the following is a feature of iodine in nutrition?
a. Excessive intakes shrink the thyroid gland
b. Processed foods in the United States do not use iodized salt
c. Iodization of salt is mandatory in the United States but not in Canada
d. Worldwide, the prevalence of iodine deficiency and iodine toxicity are approximately the same
Processed foods in the US do not use iodized salt
Which of the following is the richest source of iodine?
a. Corn
b. Seafood
c. Orange juice
d. Cruciferous vegetables
Seafood
If cow's milk is found to contain unusually high levels of iodine, what is the most likely explanation?
a. Storage of milk in galvanized tanks
b. Grazing of cows on high-iodine soils
c. Addition of fortified salt at the milk processing plant
d. Exposure of cows to iodide-containing medications and disinfectants
Exposure of cows to iodide containing medications and disinfectants
Approximately how much iodized salt must be consumed to meet but not exceed the RDA for iodine?
a. 1 mg
b. ½ teaspoon
c. 1 teaspoon
d. 1 tablespoon
1/2 teaspoon
What is the adult RDA for iodine?
a. 45 µg
b. 100 µg
c. 150 µg
d. 225 µg
c. 150 µg
Which of the following would most likely result from an excessive intake of iodine?
a. Diarrhea
b. Skin rashes
c. Dehydration
d. Thyroid gland enlargement
Thyroid gland enlargement
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for iodine?
a. 200 µg
b. 450 µg
c. 1100 µg
d. 2000 µg
c. 1100 µg
Which of the following would be the most appropriate food source of iodide for a person who lives inland?
a. Fresh-water fish
b. Iodized table salt
c. Locally grown produce
d. Plants of the cabbage family
Iodized table salt
Your uncle Carlos has survived two heart attacks, and recently asked if he might be deficient in selenium, which he had just heard is essential to heart health. You are aware of his food habits and explain that his condition could not be the result of a dietary deficiency of selenium because
a. tap water is a source of selenium.
b. selenium is prevalent in most food groups.
c. he consumes legumes, a rich source of selenium.
d. he drinks fluoridated water, which increases bioavailability of selenium.
Selenium is prevalent in most food groups
. Which of the following is an important function of selenium?
a. Helps blood to clot
b. Inhibits the formation of free radicals
c. Stabilizes the alcohol content of beer
d. Acts as a cross-linking agent in collagen
Inhibits the formation of free radicals
Keshan disease results from a deficiency of
Selenium
What trace element is part of the enzyme glutathione peroxidase?
Selenium
Which of the following is a property of selenium in nutrition?
a. It participates in the functioning of insulin
b. Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in China
c. Significant food sources include dairy and unprocessed vegetables
d. It has no RDA but the estimated safe and adequate dietary intake is only 2-3 μg/day
Severe deficiency is associated with heart disease in china
Which of the following nutrients has functions similar to those of vitamin E?
Selenium
Which of the following minerals functions primarily in reactions that consume oxygen?
Copper
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for copper?
10 mg
Your aunt Thelma has been anemic for some time and was recently shown to be deficient in copper. Which of the following explains the association of copper and anemia?
a. Copper is required for hemoglobin synthesis
b. Copper plays a role in wound healing, which prevents excessive blood loss
c. Anemia affects synthesis of protoporphyrin, which interferes with iron absorption
d. Copper is known to protect against free radical formation, which prevents excess damage of red blood cells
Copper is required for hemoglobin synthesis
All of the following are characteristics of copper in nutrition except
a. deficiency is rare.
b. legumes are a rich source.
c. absorption from foods is poor.
d. absorption is reduced by ingestion of zinc supplements.
Absorption from foods is poor
The rare genetic disorders Menkes disease and Wilson's disease result from abnormal utilization of
Copper
Which of the following is a feature of copper nutrition?
a. Absorption efficiency is similar to that of iron
b. It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing
c. Soft water may provide significant amounts in the diet
d. Deficiency is common in children of Middle East countries
It is involved in collagen synthesis and wound healing
Which of the following meats would be the best source of copper?
a. Chicken
b. Shellfish
c. Beefsteak
d. Hamburger
Shellfish
Which of the following minerals is a cofactor in the formation of hemoglobin?
Copper
Characteristics of manganese in nutrition include all of the following except
a. plant foods are good sources.
b. deficiencies are seen primarily in the elderly.
c. absorption is inhibited by calcium supplements.
d. toxicity is more common from environmental contamination than from the diet.
Deficiencies are primarily seen in the elderly
Which of the following represents the most likely cause of manganese toxicity?
a. Consumption of supplements
b. Increased absorption due to genetic defect
c. Inhalation of dust contaminated with manganese
d. Consumption of foods grown on manganese-rich soils
Inhalation of dust contaminated with manganese
Which of the following characteristics are shared by copper and fluoride?
a. Both may be obtained from drinking tap water
b. Both serve as cofactors for a number of enzymes
c. Neither is involved in the integrity of bones and teeth
d. Neither is known to be toxic at intakes of 10 times the estimated safe and adequate dietary intake
Both may be obtained by drinking tap water
What is the primary mechanism associated with the role of fluoride in prevention of dental caries?
a. Fluoride increases calcium absorption, which increases crystal formation of teeth
b. Decay is inhibited due to neutralization of organic acids produced by bacteria on the teeth
c. Decay is reduced due to the inhibitory effects of fluoride on growth of bacteria on the teeth
d. Fluoride becomes incorporated into the crystalline structure of teeth, making them less susceptible to decay
Fluoride becomes incorporated into the crystalline structure of teeth, making them less susceptible to decay
Which of the following mechanisms explains why fluoride is effective in controlling tooth decay?
a. It helps regulate calcium levels in saliva
b. It helps form decay-resistant fluorapatite
c. It inhibits growth of decay-producing bacteria
d. It changes the pH of the mouth, inhibiting bacterial growth
It helps form decay-resistant fluorapatite
What percent of the U.S. population is not exposed to a fluoridated public water supply?
30
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride?
a. Public water
b. Dark green vegetables
c. Milk and milk products
d. Meats and whole-grain cereals
Public water
Which of the following is a feature of fluoride in nutrition?
a. Most bottled waters are fluoridated
b. A severe deficiency is known as fluorosis
c. Fluorapatite refers to an increase in the desire to eat fluoride-rich foods
d. A deficiency contributes to the most widespread health problem in the United States
A deficiency contributes to the most widespread problem in the united states
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for fluoride?
10 mg
Naturally occurring food sources of fluoride include all of the following except
a. teas.
b. tuna.
c. milk.
d. shrimp.
Milk
Which of the following does not have an RDA?
a. Iron
b. Zinc
c. Iodine
d. Fluoride
Fluoride
What is the optimal fluoride concentration in community water supplies?
a. 1 ppm
b. 2 ppm
c. 2.5 ppm
d. 4 ppm
1ppm
Which of the following is known to cause discolored enamel of the teeth?
a. Excessive fluoride in the water
b. Insufficient fluoride in the water
c. Excessive intake of simple sugars
d. Inability of the body to absorb fluoride
Excessive fluoride in the water
One of the chief functions of chromium is participation in the metabolism of
a. iron.
b. proteins.
c. carbohydrates.
d. metallothionein.
carbohydrates
As far as is known, what hormone is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity?
a. Renin
b. Gastrin
c. Insulin
d. Antidiurectic hormone
Insulin
Which of the following is a characteristic of chromium in nutrition?
a. A deficiency leads to hypothyroidism
b. Supplements are known to be helpful
c. Whole grains represent an excellent source
d. In the body, it enhances the action of ceruloplasmin
Whole grains represent an excellent source
What is a glucose tolerance factor?
a. A protein that stimulates glycolysis
b. A mineral cofactor for a specific enzyme
c. A hormone that enhances pancreatic function
d. A small organic compound that promotes the action of insulin
A small organic compound that promotes the action of insulin
Chromium deficiency is characterized by
a. hypertension.
b. hyperglycemia.
c. enlargement of the liver.
d. enlargement of the thyroid gland.
Hyperglycemia
Which of the following is a characteristic of the mineral molybdenum?
a. Enhances the activity of insulin
b. Deficiency symptoms in people are unknown
c. Unusually poor food sources are legumes and cereal grains
d. Toxicity symptoms in human beings include damage to red blood cells
Deficiency symptoms in people are unknown
Which of the following trace minerals is known to be involved in bone development?
a. Tin
b. Cobalt
c. Silicon
d. Barium
Silicon
Evidence to date in animals and/or human beings suggests that normal bone metabolism requires all of the following trace minerals except
a. boron.
b. silver.
c. silicon.
d. vanadium.
Silver
What mineral is part of vitamin B12?
Cobalt
All of the following are considered heavy metals except
a. iron.
b. lead.
c. mercury.
d. cadmium.
Iron
In the body, lead is known to significantly interfere with utilization of all of the following minerals except
a. iron.
b. zinc.
c. calcium.
d. selenium.
Selenium
To serve its function in oxygen delivery to body tissues, iron must interact closely with
a. copper and vitamin C.
b. selenium and iodine.
c. zinc and vitamin A.
d. chromium and calcium.
Copper and vitamin C
Flaxseed is a rich source of
a. lutein.
b. lignans.
c. sulforaphane.
d. organosulfur compounds.
Lignans
All of the following are classified as phytonutrients except
a. lutein.
b. lignans.
c. hepcidin.
d. phytosterols.
Hepcidin
Lycopene is classified as a(n)
a. lignan.
b. carotenoid.
c. phytoestrogen.
d. enzyme cofactor.
Cartenoid
Which of the following is a rich source of phytoestrogens?
a. Potatoes
b. Soybeans
c. Cold-water fish
d. Green, leafy vegetables
Soybeans
What term designates foods that contain nonnutrient substances which may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition?
a. Health foods
b. Organic foods
c. Functional foods
d. Disease preventative foods
Functional foods