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4th grade Academic Vocabulary
a word that names an action
a word that is used to modify a verb
a word that means the opposite of another word
the punctuation mark (') used to show the omission of one or more letters from a printed word or to show ownership
added information at the end of a text
cause and effect
tells why something happened and what happened because of it. Clue words: if, then, so, because
what the selection/text is mostly about
The order in which events happen in time. There may be signal words such as first, next, then, finally, etc.
the last sentence in your paragraph that restates the topic sentence in different words
To compare in order to show the differences.
makes a statement and is followed by a period
Quoting directly from an article word for word exactly as the author wrote it
to revise or correct your work
how a story ends
a brief story, usually with animal characters, that teaches a lesson or moral
make believe story that could never happen in the real world
A list of words and definitions at the back of a book
The words at the top of a dictionary page the tell you the first and last words on that page
a word or phrase in bold print that show the text's topic or theme
an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed in a book or selection
Using what you already know plus what you read in the text to draw a conclusion
A sentence that asks a question
multi meaning word
a word that means more than one thing
a traditional story accepted as history
arranged in an orderly way
a short list or plan that gives the main ideas of a longer report
An introduction to a book
A syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning.
Shows the reltionship (such as direction, time, or placement) between a noun or pronoun and another word.
a word that takes the place of a noun
A word that names a specific person, place, thing, or idea.
the exact words that someone else wrote or said. ( " " )
a way to understand what you read
main part of a word
The arrangement of events in the order that they happened
who or what the sentence is about.
uncertainty or anxiety the reader feels about what is going to happen next in a story
the main idea of the paragraph
customary way language or its elements are used
An angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees.
length times width- (L x W) given in square units
the sum or product stays the same when the grouping of addends or factors is changed.
A picture to help with the understanding of information
A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign
equal in amount or value
the process of finding a number close to an exact amount
A way to write numbers by showing the value of each digit
A way of writing numbers in which the numbers are written to show the place value of each digit (639 = 600 + 30 + 9)
Numbers that are multiplied together to get a product
a geometric figure is turned over, producing a mirror image
a repeating pattern of shapes: triangle, triangle, rhombus
adding 0, or multiplying by 1, does not change a number
5+0=5 or 5x1=5
a fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator
A mathematical sentence that contains the symbols >, <, ≥, or ≤.
a triangle with two equal sides
a graph that connects points to show how data changes over time.
The average (add all values and divide by how many there are)
the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
A whole number and a fraction together.
The number that appears most often in a list of numbers
a number less than zero
an angle between 90 and 180 degrees
order of operations
The rules that tell which operation to perform first when more than one operation is used. PEMDAS
Lines that never intersect or cross.
a part of a whole, based on 100 parts
the distance around a figure
Two lines that intersect to form right angles
a number greater than zero
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
the mathematical chance that something will happen
answer to a multiplication problem
answer to a division problem
a parallelogram with all sides the same length
a diagram with overlapping circles used to compare and contrast two or more things
an increase in speed
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
change of direction
A change in the path of a moving object.
change of motion
a change in direction, speed, or position of a moving object
Same charges attracting each other (magnets)
Same charges repelling each other (magnets).
the process by which water vapor changes from a gas to a liquid
Heat transfer within a material or between materials that are touching.
something that allows electricity to flow through it easily (ex: copper)
control of variables
quantities that a scientist wants to remain the same
making colder or less hot
the central part of the Earth
organizing, summarizing, and asking questions of the data (information) collected
A dry weather period where there is little or no rainfall.
an object that has an excess amount of either positive and negative charges
a complete path along which electricity moves (closed loop)
A continuous flow of electrical charges.
Movement of energy from one place or object to another
wearing away of the earth's surface by wind, flowing water, or glaciers
A sequence of organisms that eat one another in an ecosystem
several food chains that are connected
a slowly moving mass of ice
an animal that eats only plants
feature of Earth's surface (examples: mountains, valley, hill, plain, mesa)
a family member who lived a long time ago
A Spanish conqueror
A settlement far away from the country that rules it.
the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs
an imaginary line around the middle of the earth
a period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
the system of rules and laws that people use to run a country
an equal division of Earth's surface into northern and southern halves or eastern and western halves
a set of values and traditions handed down from those who lived earlier
a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there
a settlement set up by a religious group to teach their religion and other ways of life to native Americans
A person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others.
any material in nature that people use and value
a person or group that goes first to explore, open, prepare, or settle an area; someone who breaks new ground, as in science or ideas
religious beliefs and practices lose importance in society and culture
an amount of something available for use
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system-across the continent