115 terms

4th grade Academic Vocabulary

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action verb
a word that names an action
adverb
a word that is used to modify a verb
antonym
a word that means the opposite of another word
apostrophe
the punctuation mark (') used to show the omission of one or more letters from a printed word or to show ownership
appendix
added information at the end of a text
cause and effect
tells why something happened and what happened because of it. Clue words: if, then, so, because
central idea
what the selection/text is mostly about
chronological order
The order in which events happen in time. There may be signal words such as first, next, then, finally, etc.
closing sentence
the last sentence in your paragraph that restates the topic sentence in different words
contrast
To compare in order to show the differences.
declarative sentence
makes a statement and is followed by a period
direct quote
Quoting directly from an article word for word exactly as the author wrote it
edit
to revise or correct your work
ending
how a story ends
fable
a brief story, usually with animal characters, that teaches a lesson or moral
fantasy
make believe story that could never happen in the real world
glossary
A list of words and definitions at the back of a book
guide words
The words at the top of a dictionary page the tell you the first and last words on that page
heading
a word or phrase in bold print that show the text's topic or theme
index
an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed in a book or selection
inference
Using what you already know plus what you read in the text to draw a conclusion
interrogative sentence
A sentence that asks a question
multi meaning word
a word that means more than one thing
myth
a traditional story accepted as history
organization
arranged in an orderly way
outline
a short list or plan that gives the main ideas of a longer report
preface
An introduction to a book
prefix
A syllable or word that comes before a root word to change its meaning.
preposition
Shows the reltionship (such as direction, time, or placement) between a noun or pronoun and another word.
pronoun
a word that takes the place of a noun
proper noun
A word that names a specific person, place, thing, or idea.
quotation
the exact words that someone else wrote or said. ( " " )
reading strategy
a way to understand what you read
root word
main part of a word
sequential order
The arrangement of events in the order that they happened
subject
who or what the sentence is about.
suspense
uncertainty or anxiety the reader feels about what is going to happen next in a story
topic sentence
the main idea of the paragraph
usage
customary way language or its elements are used
acute angle
An angle whose measure is less than 90 degrees.
area
length times width- (L x W) given in square units
associative property
the sum or product stays the same when the grouping of addends or factors is changed.
diagram
A picture to help with the understanding of information
equation
A mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign
equivalent
equal in amount or value
estimation
the process of finding a number close to an exact amount
expanded form
A way to write numbers by showing the value of each digit
expanded notation
A way of writing numbers in which the numbers are written to show the place value of each digit (639 = 600 + 30 + 9)
factors
Numbers that are multiplied together to get a product
flip transformation
a geometric figure is turned over, producing a mirror image
geometric pattern
a repeating pattern of shapes: triangle, triangle, rhombus
identity property
adding 0, or multiplying by 1, does not change a number
5+0=5 or 5x1=5
improper fraction
a fraction whose numerator is larger than the denominator
inequality
A mathematical sentence that contains the symbols >, <, ≥, or ≤.
Isosceles triangle
a triangle with two equal sides
line graph
a graph that connects points to show how data changes over time.
mean
The average (add all values and divide by how many there are)
median
the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
mixed numbers
A whole number and a fraction together.
mode
The number that appears most often in a list of numbers
negative number
a number less than zero
obtuse angle
an angle between 90 and 180 degrees
order of operations
The rules that tell which operation to perform first when more than one operation is used. PEMDAS
parallel lines
Lines that never intersect or cross.
percent
a part of a whole, based on 100 parts
perimeter
the distance around a figure
perpendicular lines
Two lines that intersect to form right angles
positive number
a number greater than zero
prime number
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
probability
the mathematical chance that something will happen
product
answer to a multiplication problem
quotient
answer to a division problem
rhombus
a parallelogram with all sides the same length
Venn Diagram
a diagram with overlapping circles used to compare and contrast two or more things
acceleration
an increase in speed
bedrock
the solid layer of rock beneath the soil
change of direction
A change in the path of a moving object.
change of motion
a change in direction, speed, or position of a moving object
charge attraction
Same charges attracting each other (magnets)
charge repulsion
Same charges repelling each other (magnets).
condensation
the process by which water vapor changes from a gas to a liquid
conduction
Heat transfer within a material or between materials that are touching.
conductor
something that allows electricity to flow through it easily (ex: copper)
control of variables
quantities that a scientist wants to remain the same
cooling
making colder or less hot
core
the central part of the Earth
data analysis
organizing, summarizing, and asking questions of the data (information) collected
drought
A dry weather period where there is little or no rainfall.
electrical charge
an object that has an excess amount of either positive and negative charges
electrical circuit
a complete path along which electricity moves (closed loop)
electrical current
A continuous flow of electrical charges.
energy transfer
Movement of energy from one place or object to another
erosion
wearing away of the earth's surface by wind, flowing water, or glaciers
food chain
A sequence of organisms that eat one another in an ecosystem
food web
several food chains that are connected
glacier
a slowly moving mass of ice
herbivore
an animal that eats only plants
land form
feature of Earth's surface (examples: mountains, valley, hill, plain, mesa)
ancestor
a family member who lived a long time ago
conquistador
A Spanish conqueror
colony
A settlement far away from the country that rules it.
culture
the way of life of a group of people who share similar beliefs and customs
equator
an imaginary line around the middle of the earth
gold rush
a period from 1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
government
the system of rules and laws that people use to run a country
hemisphere
an equal division of Earth's surface into northern and southern halves or eastern and western halves
heritage
a set of values and traditions handed down from those who lived earlier
immigrant
a person who comes to a country where they were not born in order to settle there
mission
a settlement set up by a religious group to teach their religion and other ways of life to native Americans
missionary
A person who spreads his or her religious beliefs to others.
natural resource
any material in nature that people use and value
pioneer
a person or group that goes first to explore, open, prepare, or settle an area; someone who breaks new ground, as in science or ideas
secularization
religious beliefs and practices lose importance in society and culture
supply
an amount of something available for use
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system-across the continent