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25 terms

Psychology (Myers, 8E) Chapter 12

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motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour
instinct
a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour
hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
glucose
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters an Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm
sexual disorder
a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
estrogen
a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males
testosterone
the most important of the male sex hormones
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills
industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces
personnel psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development
organizational psychology
a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
structural interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard
task leadership
goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support