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a need or desire that energizes and directs behaviour


a complex behaviour that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned

drive-reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need


a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level


a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behaviour

hierarchy of needs

Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active


the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues

set point

the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set

basal metabolic rate

the body's resting rate of energy expenditure

anorexia nervosa

an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve

bulimia nervosa

an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise

sexual response cycle

the four stages of sexual responding described by Masters an Johnson - excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution

refractory period

a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm

sexual disorder

a problem that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning


a sex hormone, secreted in greater amounts by females than by males


the most important of the male sex hormones

sexual orientation

an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex or the other sex


a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one's skills

industrial-organizational psychology

the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behaviour in workplaces

personnel psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development

organizational psychology

a subfield of I/O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change

structural interviews

interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rated on established scales

achievement motivation

a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attaining a high standard

task leadership

goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals

social leadership

group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support

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