Unit 3 test APUSH
Terms in this set (69)
An Act to Establish the Judicial Courts of the United States
Bill of Rights and Tenth Amendment
States that any power not given to the federal government is given to the people or the states.
Report on Public Credit
One of the three major reports on fiscal and economic policy submitted by Alexander Hamilton.
The National Bank
Issue currency and credit, promote economic development. Apart of Hamilton's plan, chartered for 20 years
Implied Powers/Necessary and Proper or Elastic Clause/Loose Construction
The clause that allowed the ability for the government to make laws according to society and how it changes.
Citizen Genet Affair
He was a diplomat sent by the French gov to bring the US into France's war with GB and Spain, he tried to recruit Americans to help fight in the French Rev. Washington banned him from this since we declared neutrality but he refused to listen.
Lead by John Adams and Alexander Hamilton. Believed in a strong and active federal government, feared the government in the hands of commonpeople, supported manufacturing and commerce, belief in the wealthy
Lead by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Trusted the power in the hands of the common people, feared a strong and active federal government, wanted an agrarian society.
Western farmers refused to pay the excise tax and threatened to burn down Pittsburgh. Washington then demonstrated all laws will be enforced.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794. American Military won a victory resulting in the Treaty of Greenville in which a variety of Indian tribes gave up their claims in Ohio, Michigan, and northern Illinois and agreed to move west.
Jay's Treaty and its terms
Britain agreed to abandon forts in the Ohio River Valley and open Indies to trade. Did not agree to end impressments or stop attacking US ships trading with France
1765. Settled the conflicting claims to the land between Georgia and the Mississippi River. Spain allowed US the use of Miss. River and the right to deposit in New Orleans. Very successful.
Two main aspects of Washington's Farewell Address
Warned the people of political parties and warned them against entangling in alliances with European countries. Want trade but no political connections.
The XYZ Affair
Adams sent US representatives to negotiate with France to make peace but X, Y, and X demanded a bribe.
The Alien and Sedition Acts
Alien: Must live in the US for 14 years before becoming a citizen. The government could deport immigrants.
Sedition: Anyone who wrote or spoke criticisms of the government would be punished.
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Response from Madison and Jefferson about the Alien and Sedition Acts. Primary concern was the violation of the 1st amendment. States could declare an act of Congress unconstitutional. Theory of Interposition- A state could protect its citizens from an unjust federal law.
The Election of 1800 and the Twelfth Amendment
Jefferson and Burr tied in the electoral college votes. 12th amendment established that the P and VP run together on the same ballot.
Aspects of Jefferson's political theory
Limited gov, strict interpretation of the constitution, agrarianism, states rights, and republican simplicity (leader should be man of the people and live a simple life)
Aspects of Federalist policy ended by and continued by Jefferson
Ended: Reduced size and scope of the federal government, reduced navy and military, expired the Alien and Sedition acts. Continued: Hamilton's economic plan, spent federal money, purchased Louisiana.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed before Jefferson took over, creating new judgeship which Adams filled with Federalists. William Marbury never received his commission to be a judge. Madison and Jefferson refused to give Marbury his commission. **First time that the Supreme Court ever declared a federal law unconstitutional. Established precedent that Supreme Court could decide whether laws are constitutional.
The Barbary Pirates
Barbary Pirates forced nations to pay tribute from the north coast of Africa
Jefferson's purpose in negotiating The Louisiana Purchase
Would be foolish if he did not, it was a very good offer and it would allow farmers to ship crops to eastern markets, New Orleans was the key to the river and the French could deny the US the right to deposit still
A powerful group of New England Federalists
Lewis and Clark
Sent to explore the Louisiana Purchase, particularly interested in water route to Pacific. Returned with wealth of information on the west and opened way for future exploration and settlement.
John Randolph of Roanoke
He was an advocate for state's rights and was a planter and Congressman from Virginia.
Fletcher v Peck (1810)
The Supreme Court sided with Fletcher that contracts are legally bonded documents and could not be violated
The Burr Conspiracy
He believed that there was an effect in a separation of the Western part of the United States. Dreamed of acquiring a western empire
The Berlin Decree (France) and the Orders in Council (Great Britain)
France's stoppage of trade with any country trading with GB. This was how the continental system was carried out
Britain forcing American sailors into service in the British Navy
The Embargo Act and it effects and reactions to it
The act prohibits American trade with any foreign country. The purpose was to deny GB access to American products thereby forcing them to recognize American rights. However it was ineffective in changing British policy and was incredibly unpopular.
Replaced the Embargo Act, opened trade with every country except GB and France, it was a failure.
Macon's Bill No. 2
U.S restored trade with both France and GB but agreed to end it with one country if the other agreed to recognize neutral rights. France complied with US so ended trade with GB. Reality was that France had not changed their policies.
They were very resistant in the west. NW territory, British forts, Ohio, Little Turtle
Tecumseh and Tippecanoe Creek
An Indian Confederacy led by Shawnee Tecumseh and his brother the Prophet in the Ohio River Valley. The Indians were defeated by William Henry Harrison at the battle.
Americans who wanted war because it would allow the US to expand
Main battles of the War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans: Took place after treaty was signed, most bloody battle, propelled Andrew Jackson.
The Treaty of Ghent
Was signed in Belgium, returned the relations between US and Britain to everything back how it was.
The Hartford Convention
Federalists met here to discuss amending the Constitution and possibly secede from the Union. It made the federalists look unpatriotic
Battle of New Orleans
Battle of New Orleans: Took place after treaty was signed, most bloody battle, propelled Andrew Jackson.
Effects of the War of 1812
Peace treaty, Native and Americans were pushed further west, federalists ceased to exist within 5 years
Rush- Bagot Agreement
1817. GB agreed to demilitarize the Great Lakes border between US and Canada
Convention of 1818
the 49th parallel up to jointly occupy the Oregon territory
The Transcontinental Treaty
Also known as the Adams-Onis treaty. Spain sold the US Florida for $5 million. Established a border between US and Spanish Mexico.
New European colonization in the Western Hemisphere would not be tolerated, existing European colonies would not be undermined, and the US would stay out of European affairs. It was largely the result of Secretary of State JQ Adams. US lacked military power to actually enforce it.
The Era of Good Feelings
It was evidence of nationalism (political agreement) but also of sectionalism(slavery, tariff debate, depression of 1819)
Sectional differences on Tariffs, the National Bank, Land Policy and Slavery
Tariffs: Northerners wanted tariffs because they protect their industries, southerners hated them because it would make their purchases more expensive. Land policy: Missouri compromise was reached. Slavery: Missouri applied for statehood but it would upset the balance of Congress. National bank: they created the second National bank.
The Missouri Compromise
Missouri enters as a slave state so Maine enters as a free state to maintain balance. All of the land of Louisiana Purchase north of the 36 30 line would be free.
The Election of 1824
The candidates did not have different platforms so it came down to personality. Jackson had the most popularity and electoral votes but not the minimum so the House decided on the election. "Corrupt bargain": Clay through his support behind Adams in exchange for being named Sec of State and Jackson supporters outraged.
The Tariff of Abominations
Tariff of 1828; raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South. The South claimed that it was discriminatory and unconstitutional
John Calhoun's Exposition and Protest
a tariff to raise the price of manufactured American goods was passed by Congress
a drastic change in the manual labor system originating in south (but was soon moved to the north) and later spread to the entire world. Traditional commerce became outdated with the transportation and industrial revolution. As a result, the north started to have a more powerful economy that was starting to challenge the economies of some mid-sized European cities at the time.
He was a mill apprentice in England, he would memorize the workings of factory. Slater came to the US and built the first American factory. Known as the "Father of the American Factory"
He invented the cotton gin and interchangable parts
He invented the steamboat
"Lowell-Waltham System". Housed, fed, and employed young women in textile factories.
Boston Associates and Francis Cabot Lowell
He was a prominent Boston businessman and developed the new factory system
Lowell or Waltham System
Young females housed in dormitories on factory grounds. Life was dominated by factory bells, 13 hours of work each day six days a week. New England farm girls largely replaced by Irish immigrants by mid 19th century
Sources of immigration after 1820
Ireland, Germany, GB
legal process used to form a corporate entity or company
Impact of cotton revolution on economy and on slavery
Boosted the economy and also boosted the amount of slavery throughout the South.
Roads, canals, and railroads were established for trade throughout the country
The National road
Also known as the Cumberland Road. It was a major east to west route. It was federally funded and was for trade
Robert Fulton and the impact of the Steamboat
1807. It was used for travel and transportation on river ways. It was also able to travel upstream
The Erie Canal and its impact on trade
It connected Buffalo NY on Lake Erie with Albany NY on Hudson River. It allowed the Ohio River Valley farmers direct access to eastern markets.
The Marshall Court
John Marshall was the last promiment Federalist. Rulings strengthened the federal government at expense of the states. Rulings were also pro-business and helped establish legal framework for business expansion
Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
Issue was whether New Hampshire could change the charter of Dartmouth college. Turns out they didn't have that power. Re-affirmed supremacy of the federal gov over states.
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Issue was whether the state of Maryland could tax the Bank of the US. State did not have that power. Re-affirmed supremacy.
Gibbons v. Ogden (1825)
Issue was whether state of New York could regulate interstate commerce. Did not have that power. Reaffirmed national gov's control over interstate commerce.
Charles River Bridge Case (1837)
Demonstrated that a contract could be broken to benefit general welfare. Suggested that state could cancel grant money if grant ceased to be in interest of community. Served as reversal of Dartmouth.