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Indirect method; involves a mold; usually metal, but can be any material that can be poured and then hardened
Hollow casting; complicated - essentially, the bronze replaces the wax in the casting process; advantages - possibility of several identical sculptures, captures detail, resistant to weather
Organic materials are encased in plaster; molten metal is poured in, vaporing the leaves, etc, instantly, and leaving a direct replica of the object in metal
Most common material for casting; can be superheated to flow easily and freely; extremely durable
Subtractive method, direct; wood or stone; must be carved with the grain, some materials must be filed or ground down
Sculpture in the round
Free standing, completely finished on all sides (one can walk around all sides of the figure)
"high relief" is raised more from the background, and some parts (like an arm) may be free from the background
Sculptures that create their own environment, are meant for the outdoors, & incorporate the natural environment
Demands structural stability; must defy gravity and take into account the properties of the building materials
Structural system; log cabin is an example; surface and support; prevailed until the 19th century
Skeleton and Skin System
Rigid framework with lightweight skin; largely a product of the Industrial Revolution
Simplest method of construction; stacking and piling of bricks or stones; thick at bottom and lightweight roof; allows for few, if any openings for windows; brick, stone, adobe, ice-blocks
Upright suports with horizontal cross members; stone or wood (great distances can't be spanned)
Round Arch and Vault
Tension and compression; Roman and Romanesque architecture; a perfect semi-circle; provides larger open spaces than post-and-lintel; disadvantages - must be perfect semi-circle (height is limited by width), weight & darkness
Pointed Arch and Vault
Gothic architecture; weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so arches may be much taller
A pointed vault with ribs that support the vault, allowing less material to be used elsewhere; windows now possible - stained glass often used; ex/Reims Cathedral
Wall supporting the dome: transition from a round dome to a round drum is straightforward, however, transition from a round dome to a square building requires a transitional structure
Corbelled Arch and Dome
Each course of stone extends slightly beyond the one below; appears to be just like a round arch, but is unable to distribute weight as effectively
Domestic architecture (cannot support skyscrapers); lightweight framing with siding; 2 innovations - improved lumber-milling methods, mass-produced nails
Skeleton-and-skin system; made skyscrapers possible (along with elevators); Louis Sullivan
Concretes dates back to the Romans, but brittle, with low tensile strength - until this
Iron rods are embedded in the concrete before it hardens, permanently bonding the two together
R. Buckminster Fuller; based on the geometry of triangles and tetrahedrons; modular form of construction
Frank Lloyd Wright
Residential architecture; "Praire Houses" in Midwest, echo the flat landscape - usually one story and low to the ground; believed that houses should blend in with the environment and that the inside and the outside of the house should be harmonious
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