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Ch11-12, Living with Art


Additive method of sculpting; most direct

Terra Cotta



A small clay sculpture that serves as a test piece


Rigid framework that provides support


Indirect method; involves a mold; usually metal, but can be any material that can be poured and then hardened

Lost-wax Method

Hollow casting; complicated - essentially, the bronze replaces the wax in the casting process; advantages - possibility of several identical sculptures, captures detail, resistant to weather

Direct Casting

Organic materials are encased in plaster; molten metal is poured in, vaporing the leaves, etc, instantly, and leaving a direct replica of the object in metal


Most common material for casting; can be superheated to flow easily and freely; extremely durable

Puellae (Girls)

Bronze casting by Magdalena Abakanowicz


Thin layer of gold


Colored incrustation on the metal


Sculptures that move; ex/ Alexander Calder

Southern Cross

Mobile sculpture by Alexander Calder


Subtractive method, direct; wood or stone; must be carved with the grain, some materials must be filed or ground down


Constructing; additive method; the sculpture is built out of pieces, found objects

Sculpture in the round

Free standing, completely finished on all sides (one can walk around all sides of the figure)


Protrudes from the background


"low relief" only raised a bit from the background


"high relief" is raised more from the background, and some parts (like an arm) may be free from the background

Frontal pose

Still formal pose


Informal pose; weight shift

Environmental sculpture

Sculptures that create their own environment, are meant for the outdoors, & incorporate the natural environment

Reconstructed Icicles, Dumfriesshire, 1995

Environmental sculptures; by Andy Goldsworthy

The Gates in New York's Central Park

Christo and Jeanne-Claude; Environmental sculpture

Serpent Mound

Environmental sculpture; artist unknown


environmental sculpture; Jeff Koon; not meant to last forever; explores taste


An emphasis on space rather than objects or objects alone

Red Room

Installation by Louis Bourgeois


Demands structural stability; must defy gravity and take into account the properties of the building materials

Shell system

Structural system; log cabin is an example; surface and support; prevailed until the 19th century

Skeleton and Skin System

Rigid framework with lightweight skin; largely a product of the Industrial Revolution


Light or heavy materials

Tensile strength

Ability to span distance w/o support

Load-bearing Construction

Simplest method of construction; stacking and piling of bricks or stones; thick at bottom and lightweight roof; allows for few, if any openings for windows; brick, stone, adobe, ice-blocks

Post-and-lintel Construction

Upright suports with horizontal cross members; stone or wood (great distances can't be spanned)

Hypostyle Halls

"Beneath columns;" a forest of columns holding up a high roof

Doric columns

no base

Ionic columns

volutes (Scroll-like spirals)

Corinthian columns

Acanthus leaves

Round Arch and Vault

Tension and compression; Roman and Romanesque architecture; a perfect semi-circle; provides larger open spaces than post-and-lintel; disadvantages - must be perfect semi-circle (height is limited by width), weight & darkness


top, central wedge-shaped stone that holds the arch together

Barrel vault

The arch extended in depth; tunnel

Groin vault

Two barrel vaults intersected at right angles

Pointed Arch and Vault

Gothic architecture; weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so arches may be much taller

Rib vaults

A pointed vault with ribs that support the vault, allowing less material to be used elsewhere; windows now possible - stained glass often used; ex/Reims Cathedral

Reims Cathedral

Ex of rib vaults

Flying buttress

Channel weight of the vault out to the pier


Solid masonry that supplies support for the vault


Generally in the shape of a half-sphere; perfected by the Romans; ex/ Pantheon


Ex of Dome and oculus; Roman


Round opening at the top of the dome


Round building


Wall supporting the dome: transition from a round dome to a round drum is straightforward, however, transition from a round dome to a square building requires a transitional structure


Curved triangular structures that support the dome

Corbelled Arch and Dome

Each course of stone extends slightly beyond the one below; appears to be just like a round arch, but is unable to distribute weight as effectively

Cast-Iron Construction

Skeleton-and-skin; provides a solid framework for building

Crystal Palace

Hyde Park, London; ex of Cast-iron construction

Balloon-Frame Construction

Domestic architecture (cannot support skyscrapers); lightweight framing with siding; 2 innovations - improved lumber-milling methods, mass-produced nails

Steel-Frame Construction

Skeleton-and-skin system; made skyscrapers possible (along with elevators); Louis Sullivan



Reinforced concrete

Concretes dates back to the Romans, but brittle, with low tensile strength - until this


Iron rods are embedded in the concrete before it hardens, permanently bonding the two together

Geodesic Domes

R. Buckminster Fuller; based on the geometry of triangles and tetrahedrons; modular form of construction


A horizontal form supported at one end and jutting out into space at the other

Frank Lloyd Wright

Residential architecture; "Praire Houses" in Midwest, echo the flat landscape - usually one story and low to the ground; believed that houses should blend in with the environment and that the inside and the outside of the house should be harmonious

Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pennsylvania

Frank Lloyd Wright

Hagia Sophia


Taj Mahal


Sydney Opera House


Guggenheim Museum

Bilboa, Spain by Frank Gehry

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