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70 terms

Sculpture & Architecture

Ch11-12, Living with Art
STUDY
PLAY
Modeling
Additive method of sculpting; most direct
Terra Cotta
Clay
Sketch
A small clay sculpture that serves as a test piece
Armature
Rigid framework that provides support
Casting
Indirect method; involves a mold; usually metal, but can be any material that can be poured and then hardened
Lost-wax Method
Hollow casting; complicated - essentially, the bronze replaces the wax in the casting process; advantages - possibility of several identical sculptures, captures detail, resistant to weather
Direct Casting
Organic materials are encased in plaster; molten metal is poured in, vaporing the leaves, etc, instantly, and leaving a direct replica of the object in metal
Bronze
Most common material for casting; can be superheated to flow easily and freely; extremely durable
Puellae (Girls)
Bronze casting by Magdalena Abakanowicz
Gilding
Thin layer of gold
Patina
Colored incrustation on the metal
Mobiles
Sculptures that move; ex/ Alexander Calder
Southern Cross
Mobile sculpture by Alexander Calder
Carving
Subtractive method, direct; wood or stone; must be carved with the grain, some materials must be filed or ground down
Assembling
Constructing; additive method; the sculpture is built out of pieces, found objects
Sculpture in the round
Free standing, completely finished on all sides (one can walk around all sides of the figure)
Relief
Protrudes from the background
Bas-relief
"low relief" only raised a bit from the background
Haut-relief
"high relief" is raised more from the background, and some parts (like an arm) may be free from the background
Frontal pose
Still formal pose
Contrapposto
Informal pose; weight shift
Environmental sculpture
Sculptures that create their own environment, are meant for the outdoors, & incorporate the natural environment
Reconstructed Icicles, Dumfriesshire, 1995
Environmental sculptures; by Andy Goldsworthy
The Gates in New York's Central Park
Christo and Jeanne-Claude; Environmental sculpture
Serpent Mound
Environmental sculpture; artist unknown
Puppy
environmental sculpture; Jeff Koon; not meant to last forever; explores taste
Installation
An emphasis on space rather than objects or objects alone
Red Room
Installation by Louis Bourgeois
Architecture
Demands structural stability; must defy gravity and take into account the properties of the building materials
Shell system
Structural system; log cabin is an example; surface and support; prevailed until the 19th century
Skeleton and Skin System
Rigid framework with lightweight skin; largely a product of the Industrial Revolution
Weight
Light or heavy materials
Tensile strength
Ability to span distance w/o support
Load-bearing Construction
Simplest method of construction; stacking and piling of bricks or stones; thick at bottom and lightweight roof; allows for few, if any openings for windows; brick, stone, adobe, ice-blocks
Post-and-lintel Construction
Upright suports with horizontal cross members; stone or wood (great distances can't be spanned)
Hypostyle Halls
"Beneath columns;" a forest of columns holding up a high roof
Doric columns
no base
Ionic columns
volutes (Scroll-like spirals)
Corinthian columns
Acanthus leaves
Round Arch and Vault
Tension and compression; Roman and Romanesque architecture; a perfect semi-circle; provides larger open spaces than post-and-lintel; disadvantages - must be perfect semi-circle (height is limited by width), weight & darkness
Keystone
top, central wedge-shaped stone that holds the arch together
Barrel vault
The arch extended in depth; tunnel
Groin vault
Two barrel vaults intersected at right angles
Pointed Arch and Vault
Gothic architecture; weight is channeled to the ground at a steeper angle, so arches may be much taller
Rib vaults
A pointed vault with ribs that support the vault, allowing less material to be used elsewhere; windows now possible - stained glass often used; ex/Reims Cathedral
Reims Cathedral
Ex of rib vaults
Flying buttress
Channel weight of the vault out to the pier
Pier
Solid masonry that supplies support for the vault
Dome
Generally in the shape of a half-sphere; perfected by the Romans; ex/ Pantheon
Pantheon
Ex of Dome and oculus; Roman
Oculus
Round opening at the top of the dome
Rotunda
Round building
Drum
Wall supporting the dome: transition from a round dome to a round drum is straightforward, however, transition from a round dome to a square building requires a transitional structure
Pendentives
Curved triangular structures that support the dome
Corbelled Arch and Dome
Each course of stone extends slightly beyond the one below; appears to be just like a round arch, but is unable to distribute weight as effectively
Cast-Iron Construction
Skeleton-and-skin; provides a solid framework for building
Crystal Palace
Hyde Park, London; ex of Cast-iron construction
Balloon-Frame Construction
Domestic architecture (cannot support skyscrapers); lightweight framing with siding; 2 innovations - improved lumber-milling methods, mass-produced nails
Steel-Frame Construction
Skeleton-and-skin system; made skyscrapers possible (along with elevators); Louis Sullivan
Suspension
Bridges
Reinforced concrete
Concretes dates back to the Romans, but brittle, with low tensile strength - until this
Ferroconcrete
Iron rods are embedded in the concrete before it hardens, permanently bonding the two together
Geodesic Domes
R. Buckminster Fuller; based on the geometry of triangles and tetrahedrons; modular form of construction
Cantilever
A horizontal form supported at one end and jutting out into space at the other
Frank Lloyd Wright
Residential architecture; "Praire Houses" in Midwest, echo the flat landscape - usually one story and low to the ground; believed that houses should blend in with the environment and that the inside and the outside of the house should be harmonious
Fallingwater, Bear Run, Pennsylvania
Frank Lloyd Wright
Hagia Sophia
Istanbul
Taj Mahal
India
Sydney Opera House
Australia
Guggenheim Museum
Bilboa, Spain by Frank Gehry