Taylor Fundamentals of Nursing Chapter 40: Self Concept
Terms in this set (39)
Self Concept + its Dimensions
- The mental image or picture of self has the power to either encourage or thwart personal growth.
- All te feelings, beliefs and values associated with "I" or "me"
- Components include: personal identity, body image, self esteem and role performance
Dimensions of self concept:
- Self knowledge
- Self expectations
- Self evaluation
The need to feel good about oneself and to believe that others hold one in high regard.
The need to reach one's potential though full development of one's unique capability
The failure to integrate various childhood identifications into a harmonious adult psychosocial identity, which can lead to disruptions in relationships and problems of intamacy.
The subjective experience of the partial or total disruption of one's ego and the disintegration and disorganization of one's self concept.
Continuum of Self Concept Responses + its two ends
Adaptive responses (one end) + Maladaptive responses (the other end)
positive self concept
low self esteem
3 Dimensions of Self Concept
1.) SELF KNOWLEDGE: "Who am I?"
2.) SELF EXPECTATIONS: "Who or what do I want to be?"
3.) SELF EVALUATION: "How well do I like myself?"
- Used to describe the composite of all the basic facts, qualities, traits, images and feelings one holds about oneself.
- Strongly influence a person's ability to manage life events and ensure emotional stability.
SELF KNOWLEDGE: "Who am I?"
- GLOBAL SELF
- Basic facts (sex, age, race, occupation, cultural background, sexual orientation)
- Person's position within social groups
- Qualities or traits that describe typical behaviors, feelings, moods and other characteristics (generous, hot headed, ambitious, intelligent)
SELF EXPECTATIONS: "Who or what do I want to be?"
- The IDEAL SELF constitutes the self one wants to be
- These self expectations develop unconsciously early in childhood and are based on images of role models such as parents, other caregiving figures and public figures.
- Develop unconsciously in early childhood and are based on images of role models such as parents, other caregiving figures and public figures
- These personal expectations might be healthy or unhealthy
- A FALSE SELF might develop in people who have an emotional need to respond to the needs and ambitions significant people, such as parents, have of them.
SELF EVALUATION: "How well do I like myself?"
Maslow identified 2 subsets of esteem needs:
1.) Self esteem needs (strength, achievement, mastery and competence, confidence in the face of the world, independence and freedom)
2.) Respect needs or the need for esteem from others (status, dominance, recognition, attention, importance, appreciation).
Maslow: 2 SOURCES of self esteem
1.) How competent children think they are in various aspects of life
2.) How much social support they receive from other people.
Coppersmith: 4 BASES of self esteem
1.) SIGNIFICANCE: the way people feel they are loved and approved of by the people important to them
2.) COMPETENCE: The way tasks that are considered important are performed
3.) VIRTUE: The attainment of moral-ethical standards
4.) POWER: The extent to which people influence their own and other's lives.
3 Major Self-Evaluation Feelings
1.) PRIDE: Based on a positive self evaluation
2.) GUILT: Based on behaviors incongruent with ideal self
3.) SHAME: Associated with low global self worth
Sullivan on Self Representations
Proposed that a "good me" and a "bad me" are developed based on reflected appraisals of the self learned int he context of a child's early relationships.
Bowlby Attachment Theory
Describes modes by which a young child develops and maintains feelings about the self as ewll as values and beliefs about the world. Attachment is a process by which the child maintains felt security via an interpersonal bond with close caregivers. Depending on how healthy the child's attachemnt experience is with the early caregiver, the growing child's self esteem might vary greatly.
3 Parts of Formation of Self Concept
1.) AN infant learns that the phyical self is different from the enbironemnt. If basic needs are met, affectio is experienced and the caregivers anxiety is minimixed then the child begins life iwth positive feeling about the self
2.) The child internalizes other people's attitudes toward self, including attitudes directed toward the child's innate tendencies, such as temperment and aggression. This internalization forms the foundation of self concept.
3.) The child or adult internalizes the standards of society
4 Stages in the development of the self
1.) Self AWARENESS - Infancy
2.) Self RECOGNITION - 18 months
3.) Self DEFINITION - 3 years
4.) Self CONCEPT - 6-7 years
Factors Affecting Self Concept
1.) Developmental level
3.) Internal + external resources
4.) History of success and failure
5.) Crises or life stressor
6.) Aging, illness or trauma
Aguilera's 3 Factors that Determine a Person's Response to Stress
1.) The person's PERCEPTION of the event or situation
2.) The person's situational SUPPORTS (external resources)
3.) The COPING MECHANISMS the person possesses (internal resources)
Describes a person's conscious sense of who he or she is.
Person's subjective view of one's physical appearance.
Our ability to successfully live up to societal as well as our own expectations regarding role specific behaviors.
ADAPTIVE Response to Deformity or Limitation
Patient exhibits signs of grief and mourning (shock, disbelief, denial, anger, guilt and acceptance)
MALADAPTIVE Response to Deformity or Limitation
Patient continues to deny and to avoid dealing with the deformity or limitation, engages in self destructive behavior, talks about feelings of worthlessness or insecurity, equates deformity or limitation with whole person, shows a change in ability to estimate relationship of body to environment.
ADAPTIVE Response to Idependence-Dependence Patterns
Patient assumes responsibility for care (makes decisions), develops new self care behaviors, uses available resources, interacts in a mutually supportive way with family.
MALADAPTIVE Response to Idependence-Dependence Patterns
Patient assigns responsibility for his or her care to others, becomes increasingly dependent, or stubbornly refuses necessary help.
ADAPTIVE Response to Socialization + Communication
Maintains usual social patterns, communicates needs and accepts offers of help, serves as support for others.
MALADAPTIVE Response to Socialization + Communication
Isolates oneself, exhibits superficial self confidence, is unable to express needs (becomes hostile, ashamed, frusterated, depressed)
A person's situational support is considered an external resource
a person's coping mechanisms are internal resources
occurs when the person perceives himself as inadequate or unsuited for a role and can occur when a person is forced to assume many roles
is related to expectations concerning the role
associated with a change in relationships
Which developmental stage does Erikson term autonomy vs. shame?
4 Components of Self-Concept
4 Stages in Development of Self
Self-recognition (18 months)
Self-definition (3 years)
Self-concept (6-7 years)
Four Bases of Self-Esteem (Coopersmith 1967)
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