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Science ch. 6
Terms in this set (48)
Charles Darwin was a -
A person who observesnand studies the natural world.
Scientists have identified more than - species of orgNisms on Earth.
A group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce with fertile offspring.
The exact number of species is - because many areas of Earth have not been studied yet.
The preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past.
The BEAGLE made many stops along the - and - coasts of -
He compared - from the Galápagos Islands to organisms that lived elsewhere.
Remain the same
Darwin became convinced that species do not always-
Instead, he thought species could - and even produce new species -
Darwin concluded that the - species were all related to a single ancestor species that came from the mainland.
A trait that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce.
Change over time
Darwin was convinced that organisms-
The process of change over time
Darwin hypothesized that species - over many generations and become better adapted to -
Theory of evolution
Darwin's ideas were often referred to as a -
A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
Changed over time
From the evidence he collected, Darwin concluded that organisms on the Galápagos Islands had -
Darwin studied the offspring of - that were produced by-
In an effort to understand how - might occur.
Species change over many generations
They become better adapted to new conditions
New animals that came to the island faced conditions that were different than ones on the nearby mainland
Make a list of three observations that Darwin made during the BEAGLES VOYAGE
It showed how species change over time
How does artificial selection support Darwin's hypothesis?
Alfred Russel Wallace
In - Darwin and - (another British biologist) both proposed the same explanation for how EVOLUTION occurs.
In the ORIGIN OF SPECIES, Darwin proposed that - occurs by means of -
The process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce more than other members of the same species.
Darwin identified factors that affect the process of natural selection:
Any difference between individuals of the same species
Ex: sea turtles may differ in color, size, the ability to swim quickly, and shell hardness
Darwin observed that some - make individuals better adapted to their environment.
The - selects organisms with helpful traits to become parents of the next generation.
Darwin proposed that, over a -, natural selection can lead to -
A change in the - an affect an organisms ability to survive and therefore lead to- Ex: monkey flowers
Without -, all the members of species would have the same traits and the same chance of - and -
As scientists later learned, - can result from changes in genes and shuffling of different forms of genes when egg and sperm cell join.
Only traits that are - or controlled by genes that are passed on to offspring, can be acted upon by NATURAL SELCTION
Theory of evolution
Since Darwin's time, scientists have found a great deal of evidence that supports the -
By - scientists can infer the structures of ancient organisms.
The millions of fossils that scientists have collected
It provides clues about how and when new species evolved and how organisms are related.
Scientists also infer - by comparing the early development of different organisms.
Basic body plan
An organism's body structure is its-, which in vertebrates includes how long it's bones are arranged.
Similar structures that relates species have inherited from a common ancestor Ex: bird wing, dolphin flipper, dog leg
Segments of DNA
Explains how variations can led to changes in a species.
A new - can form when a group of individuals remains Isolated from the rest of its species long enough to evolve different traits that prevent reproduction.
The fossil record
Has provided a scientist with a lot of important info about the past life on Earth.
2) punctuated equilibrium
Scientist have developed two patterns to describe the pace of evolution:
Involved small changes that add up to major changes over a long period of time.
A pattern in which species evolve during short periods of rapid change and then don't change much.
Two organisms that can mate and produce fertile offspring are members of the same -
He did a lot of observations
No one has proven him wrong so far
Why are Darwin's ideas classified as scientific theory?
The more - the DNA sequences between two organisms are, the more closely related the two species are.
What type of evidence is the best indicator of how closely two species are related?
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