H-WHAC MP1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (48)
What were the 3 motives for exploration?
Gold, God, Glory,
What European country explored in SE Asia first?
Why did European countries want to colonize in SE Asia?
To trade because of the multiple opportunities for riches
Which European countries explored Central and South America?
SPAIN and Portugal
What goods did Portugal and Spain send back home from South America?
Gold, silver, slaves, resources
Which European countries explored North America? Where?
France - Canada
England - eastern (13 colonies)
Dutch - Hudson River Valley, NY (until England takes over)
List new foods that were sent FROM America to Europe.
corn, potatoes, manioc, beans, squash, cassava, pumpkins, cacao, tomatoes
Define Mercantilism. What was the role of gold and silver
policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver. Colonies existed to benefit the mother country (for raw materials). Tariffs were set on other countries' goods.
Who was in charge of the colonies in the New World?
appointed people from mother country
Who was at the bottom of the Social ladder in the New World?
What was the goal of missionaries in the New World?
To convert natives to Christianity
The 13 colonies were allowed religious freedom: what did this result in?
More diversity, religious freedom of all kinds which meant a mixed variety, religious tolerance allowed Quakers, Puritans, etc.
Which European country was the first to explore in Africa?
What was the main export from Africa?
Slaves (Middle Passage)
Why were slaves brought to the New World?
To fulfill the need for workers and labor on plantations
Why did European countries not explore in the interior of southern Africa at first?
Because they wanted to explore via a sea route, therefore they started at the coasts. They were not traveling by land
Which Asian country had very limited trade with European countries on their terms?
Which Asian country allowed the Dutch to trade with them ONCE a year?
List the reasons why the Renaissance began in Italy.
The Crusades, Religious Turmoil, Bubonic Plague
exposed people of Europe to goods/knowledge
kings grow stronger after faith is lost in pope, people turn to secular things/humanism
wages go up bc not as much workers, losing faith, tech improves (labor saving devices), people move back to cities for protection, feudalism weakens, more mobility for peasants
Why was the Medici Family so important to the Renaissance?
They were huge patrons of the arts, revolutionized the banking business, and helped with political development.
Explain the new idea of Humanism. What did people study?
focus on more worldly subjects rather than religious issues. People studied secular topics and the sciences (universe, motion, anatomy).
Changes to art in the Renaissance.
Artists focused on making their art more realistic. They added depth to their work and focused on the importance of the individual and human body. People began to sign their works for the first time in history.
Which invention had the biggest impact on the Reformation? How?
The printing press because the idea of being Protestant and the 95 Theses could be spread about to more people.
a man who was unhappy with the way that the Catholic Church was operating (corruption could be seen everywhere), so he wrote his 95 Theses to show his displeasure. He was excommunicated for his action against the church and the Edict of Worms declared him an outlaw, but his supporters saved him. He started the Protestant Reformation and formed the Lutheran Church.
Calvinism developed from him. He believed in the idea of Predestination and held a strict morality of the Old Testament. He ran a theocratic government in Geneva, Switzerland in 1514.
king of England during the English Reformation. He broke from the Catholic Church in order to obtain a divorce from Catherine of Aragon because there was no son produced. When the Pope said no, he broke and became the head of the Church of England due to the Act of Supremacy (1537).
What was the result of the Protestant Reformation on Europe?
German princes split between Catholic and Protestant ideas, War breaks out, Rulers of areas could choose religion, Minorities are often persecuted, St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre.
Church reformation, Religious toleration (some don't), Nationalism
Wars of German Princes
Because the German princes were divided. Peace of Augsburg ends it and proclaims that Each prince was to determine whether Lutheranism or Roman Catholicism was to prevail in his lands ( cuius regio, eius religio).
30 Years War Impact
takes terrible toll on continent and population, ends with Peace of Westphalia which settled territories and allowed some religious toleration.
Start of the 30 Years' War
Defenestration of Prague, started religious ended political
What did Newton do for Science?
Gravity, Laws of Motion, white light composed of colors, invented calculus
human reasoning, father of modern philosophy
human cadaver research
Phillip of Spain
Involved in wars for religious reasons (Netherlands and England) and ruins the economy with taxes and military campaigns
Maria-Theresa of Austria
united diverse lands under her control, allows religious tolerance and limited self rule, tried to modernize govt, lots of kids
Louis XIV of France (Sun King)
financeers like Marazin and Colbert fix govt and economy, revokes Edict of Nantes which allows for Protestant toleration, builds Palace of Versailles, exerts control over nobles by etiquette, wars for expansion and war of Spanish Succession (grandson to be king of Spain), in later life ruin economy
Charles I of England
Tries to make England more Catholic, disbands Parliament, makes enemies in Oliver Cromwell and other Puritans and is overthrown and executed in the English Civil War
Frederick II of Prussia
military genius, enlightened despot, reorganizes govt, simplifies laws, improves agriculture, allows religious tolerance, War of Austrian Succession and 7 Years War
Peter the Great the Russia
6 foot 6, rules by fear, westernizes and discourages old Russian ways, expands territory into Sweden, the Pacific, and Alaska.
Catherine (II) the Great of Russia
continues westernization, supports nobles and burdens serfs, divides Parliament with Fred the Great and Joseph II, secures a warm water port from the Ottoman Empire.
How Cardinal Richelieu helps make France the dominant nation in Europe.
Helps establish absolutism,/centralization of power in France, checked Hapsburg power
Describe three specific ways that art changed in the Renaissance
Perspective and depth for more realistsic
Not all religious: mythology, human beauty, everyday
What was the impact of the Columbian Exchange? Discuss 1 political, 1 social and 1 economic impact
Economic: Inflation due to trade with mercantilism
Social: Rise of the Middle Class
Political: Countries want to set up colonies
Why were Africans used as slaves in European colonies? What was the impact
for labor, they were mistreated and racism occurred that still exists
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