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Exam 4 week 2
Terms in this set (32)
Sex chromosomes - XY (male), XX (female)
What are the sex chromosome differences?
Gonads - testes (male), ovaries (female)
What are the differences of gonads? What are their respective hormones?
Influences the release of hormones from other glands
Gonadotropin - a hormone that stimulates the release of gonadal hormones from the gonads
How is the pituitary gland important in sex hormones? What hormone from the pituitary gland is released to stimulate the release of gonadal hormones?
Posterior pituitary (from the hypothalamus)
Anterior pituitary (roof of the mouth!)
What are the two separate glands of the pituitary?
Hypothalamus releases hormones into the blood system to activate the anterior pituitary
How does the pituitary indirectly control the hypothalamus (cool stuff slide 12)?
Anatomical, physiological and behavioral changes during sexual maturity
Activating the reproduction-related behavior in sexually mature adults
What are the two broad ways that sex hormones influence sex?
Sry gene triggers male testis development (6 wk)
What is the Sry gene?
Wolffian system (male) and Müllerian system (female) - (3 months)
Testes secrete testosterone and Müllerian-inhibiting substance
Compare and contrast Wolffian and Müllerian
Bipotential precursor starts to develop in second month of pregnancy
What is a bipotential precursor?
Gonadal hormones are released and trigger the development of secondary sexual characteristics
In females, estrogens are high, androgens low
In males, androgens are high, estrogens are low
Generally speaking, what is puberty?
Testosterone is converted to estradiol
Chemically, how is testosterone related to estradiol?
In the aromatization hypothesis, how is the male brain "masculinized"?
Alpha fetoprotein is present in the blood of the fetus and deactivates estradiol
What is alpha fetoprotein?
Know slide 27 and how it describes the sexually dimorphic nucleus.
Men, because men are usually bigger than the female
Do men or women have proportionally bigger brains?
Hippocampus - bigger in women
Amygdala - bigger in men
White Matter - less in women
Gray Matter - more in women
Which parts of the brain are larger or smaller in males and females?
Male's usually do the mounting, and female's usually do to lordosis, which being submissive of the mounting.
Discuss how hormones influence sexual behavior in rodents. Use the terms "mounting" and "lordosis."
Completely unresponsive androgen receptors
Genetically male, but no male sexual characteristics
Normal androgen release, but not recognized
What is androgen insensitivity syndrome?
Reduced gonadotropin release
Testicular atrophy (men), amenorrhea (women)
Breast growth (men), shrinkage (women)
Psychotic behaviors (rage/depression)
What are the side effects of anabolic steroids?
Heterosexual - Sexual attraction to the opposite sex
Homosexual - Sexual attraction to the same sex
Bisexual - Sexual attraction to both sexes
Compare and contrast: heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual.
Sexual Identity - The sex a person believes themselves to be
What is sexual identity?
The probability of a man being homosexual increases as a function of the number of older biological brothers he has
Problem 1 - Doesn't address homosexual females at all
Problem 2 - There is no evidence that hormone levels in heterosexuals differ from homosexuals
Problem 3 - Blocking testosterone during development would have developmental effects
What is the fraternal birth order effect and with it the maternal immune hypothesis?
What are the problems with this (list 3)?
Attraction depends on many variables, but certain factors make attraction more likely
Proximity - People tend to date others that live nearby
Exposure - Mere exposure to a person may make them more attractive to you
List some factors that affect likelihood of attraction.
To increase reproductive success, men should attempt to impregnate as many women as possible
Short-term strategy - Men must identify fertile females and not expend too much energy/time in securing mating
For long-term, men desire different qualities that reflect faithfulness, nurturance and fertility
In terms of male preferences, what is the short-term strategy? Long-term?
Childrearing is a costly endeavor(Time, energy, resources)
Short-term strategy - Learn how to keep a mate, see what's out there, establish a "backup", and Value wealth and status more here
Long-term strategy - More likely than men to "demand" marriage, and Value wealth and status
In terms of female preferences, what is the short-term strategy? Long-term?
We are bilaterally symmetrical, Symmetry is a sign of proper development, and Symmetrical faces are thought to be more attractive
What is symmetry?
Define the waist-hip ratio.
Kind, understanding, intelligent, creative
Good health and good bilateral symmetry
Not perfect though - can be perturbed by androgens that also result in:
Large jaw, broad shoulders and good upper muscles
What is the masculine ideal?
Kind, understanding, intelligent
Soft curves evident of good estrogen levels
Faithful and loyal
Imagine all of the heroines in cartoons and movies
What is the feminine ideal?
We tend to like people who have similar attitudes to our own, and Similarity doesn't spark attraction, but dissimilarity does spark repulsion!
How does "matching" come into play when deciding partners?
MHC plays a role in the immune system
Adaptive to breed with partner with different MHC to convey better immunity to children
What is major histocompatibility complex (MHC)?
A fear and rage reaction designed to protect, maintain and prolong an intimate relationship
What is jealousy?
Waist-Hip Ratio - For men, this is an indicator of health and fertility in a potential mate (0.67-0.80). Before puberty, men and women are similar, and After puberty fat deposits change
Men - abdominal region
Women - thighs and buttocks
Define the waist-hip ratio.
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