APHG UNIT 5 - agriculture
Terms in this set (117)
physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious foods that are enough to meet the daily needs for a healthy and active life
deliberate modification of Earth's surface through the cultivation of plants and animals to obtain nutrition or economic gains
to care for
places that don't have access to fresh food
1st version of agriculture
hunting and gathering
man's role in hunting and gathering
to hunt and fish
woman's role in hunting and gathering
to collect & gather
where is hunting and gathering present in the world today
Spinifex in Australia, Bushman of Botswana and Namibia; less than 0.0005% of the world
1st agricultural revolution
neolithic revolution (both environmental and cultural)
Carl Sauer's opinion on the Neolithic Revolution
he believed it happened in diverse settings and with diverse species where there was a surplus
plant and animal domestication
animal labor first used for planting before food
agricultural hearth in China
rice in china: more than 10,000 years ago
agricultural hearth in SW Asia
barley, wheat, and large animals: around 10,000 years ago
agricultural hearth in the Americas
what influences what is being produced
the environment and/or cultural factors
how has corn evolved
corn is used more for animal consumption than human consumption
when did the 2nd revolution occur
1750-1900; same time as industrial revolution
effects of the 2nd revolution
- more food
- increased population & urbanization
- improved technology/mechanization (seed drill)
- farm size increased
- new markets
- better livestock
when did the 3rd revolution occur
during the second half of the 20th century
what is the 3rd revolution also called
the Green Revolution
results of the 3rd revolution
- biotechnology or genetic engineering
- new/higher yield (hybrid) seeds; rice production could be doubled or tripled; miracle seeds
3rd revolution increase in productivity
- expanded use of fertilizers
- new irrigation systems
- leaning towards more commercial farming
Green (3rd) Revolution effects
- crop yields have increased in LDC's; agricultural productivity increases faster than population; EXCEPT sub-saharan Africa
- growth of the modern supermarket
- loss of family farms/small farms (not earning enough $)
- increase in pollution
why the Green Revolution worked
- political stability
- transportation system
- cultural acceptance
long term limits of the Green Revolution
- increased cost
- pollution: soil & water
- women get loans
- water supply
subsistence agriculture is located in ____________ countries
commercial agriculture is located in _______________ countries
produce food for consumption
produce food to sell
more people in the agricultural labor force indicates....
less developed countries w/ subsistence farming
differences between commercial & subsistence farming
1. Purpose: sell or eat
2. Percentage of farmers in the labor force: 5% in MDC's, 50% in LDC's
3. Use of technology: driving w/ GPS tractors
4. Farm size: amount of land devoted to agriculture has increased in America
5. Relationship of farming to other businesses: farming integrated w/ other industries (agribusiness)
types of subsistence agriculture
1. pastoral nomadism
2. shifting cultivation (slash & burn agriculture)
3. intensive subsistence agriculture
LDC agriculture for export
4. plantation farming
- dry areas of the world
- herding of domesticated animals; use all parts of the animals, trade them for grains
- camels in N. Africa & SW Asia (goats will eat anything)
- takes up a lot of land (extensive)
seasonal migration between mountains & highlands
shifting cultivation (slash & burn agriculture)
- opposite of pastoral nomadism
- areas w/ high temp & abundant rainfall
- swidden (cleared area), deplete it, and move on; lasts about 3 years
- corn, manioc (cassara) and millet or sorghum; typically multicrop
- not efficient; change to livestock or timber
- leads to deforestation
- takes up a lot of land (extensive)
intensive subsistence agriculture
- 75% of the population
- most w/ manual labor of animals
- climate dictates what is grown
- use of manual equipment
- use all the land & minimize waste
- wet rice!!!
1. field prepared w/ animals (terraced/inter-tillage, in SE Asia)
2. field flooded to create a paddy (Sawah in Indonesia)
3. rice seedlings transplanted
4. rice harvested using knives
plantation farming in general
- cotton, coffee, rubber, tobacco etc.
- owned by transnational corporations to grow crops to sell in MDC's
- import workers & provide them with food, housing, & social services
a large farm that specializes in one or two crops
plantation farming in LDC's
- helps economic development
- single commodity
- commercial vs. subsistence
- environmental issues
plantation farming in MDC's
- fair trade
- specific tastes
- coffee shops
what countries are the highest producers of coffee?
vietnam & cambodia
plantation in farming in MDC's led to an increase in...
types of commercial agriculture in MDC
1. mixed crop & livestock
2. dairy farming
3. grain farming
4. livestock ranching
5. Mediterranean agriculture
6. commercial gardening & fruit farming
mixed crop & livestock - commercial agriculture
- livestock fattening = crucial part
- most of the crops are fed to animals
- corn is the most important crop in the US; also soybeans
- crop rotation helps get nutrients for all the crops
what crop started the 3rd agricultural revolution?
According to Carl Sauer, which of the following is true about plant domestication?
it first occurred in diversified habitats with a variety of species
what area of the world has been LEAST impacted by the Green Revolution?
one sentence that describes the 2nd agricultural revolution
the Second Agricultural Revolution brought mechanization into the farming process
The seed drill, reapers, and threshers were all inventions that promoted the...
2nd agricultural revolution
Beans and cotton were first domesticated in which agricultural hearth?
results of the Neolithic Revolution
increase in reliable food supply, rapid increase in total human population, job specialization, and development of distinction between settled people & nomads
Which country has MOST strongly experienced higher food productivity as a result of the Green Revolution?
Which type of agriculture probably emerged first?
A common criticism of the Green Revolution is...
has led to groundwater pollution by extensive use of fertilizers
Some commercial farms are converting to sustainable agriculture which is distinguished by...
ridge tillage, limited chemicals, better integration of crops & livestock, sensitive land management
The greatest percentage of people in the world participate in which type of agriculture?
In which area of the world is intensive subsistence farming most commonly practiced?
East & South Asia
Subsistence agriculture is always characterized by:
production only for family consumption
If a country's farms are mainly small in land space, the type of agriculture practiced in the country is probably...
If a high percentage of a country's labor force is engaged in agriculture, the type of agriculture most commonly practiced is probably...
Which is a good example of subsistence agriculture?
A family growing its own vegetables
Which five principal features distinguish commercial agriculture from subsistence agriculture?
purpose of farming, percentage of farmers in the labor force, use of machinery, farm size and relationship of farming to other businesses
A characteristic of commercial gardening and fruit farming is:
it is generally referred to as truck farming
A small family-run farm in an LDC that produces a variety of crops including corn, vegetables, eggs, and milk would most likely be an example of:
The type of agricultural most often practiced in rain forest zones is:
Which type of animal is NOT well suited to the lifestyle of pastoral nomads?
Swidden agriculture can have negative environmental impacts if
the period of fallow is too short for proper nutrient regeneration
A crop commonly associated with intensive subsistence farming is
In LDCs, plantation crops like bananas, coffee and sugar are examples of
The clearing of tropical rain forest for agriculture frequently results in
a shift to animal raising
Shifting cultivation, or swidden agriculture is usually practiced in areas where the natural landscape is
What are examples of extensive subsistence agriculture?
shifting cultivation and pastoral nomadism
What pair of agricultural types occupies the largest percentage of the world's total land area?
shifting cultivation & nomadic herding
Where is Mediterranean agriculture not practiced?
Ukraine and Western Russia
Olives, dates and grapes are agricultural products practiced in what type of farming?
effects of agribusiness
the farm is no longer the center of agricultural activity, transnational corporations often control agricultural activity abroad, agriculture has become multilevel process of production, processing, marketing , and consumption, and some corporations essentially dictate agricultural production in other countries besides their own
what are NOT an effects of agribusiness
family farmers, through increasing technology, are producing goods for the global economy AND it affects only the United States as one of the world's major agricultural producers
Farming in the United States, in particular, has experienced what pattern?
movement to agricultural industrialization
The overgrazing of pasture areas in arid climates has caused which problem?
One of the main characteristics of mixed crop and livestock farming is
crops are fed to animals rather than consumed by humans
The dominance of corn production in the United States correlates with what other agricultural practice?
Livestock ranching is the most common type of agriculture in
the pampas of Argentina
As industrialized countries continue to develop economically, agriculture in the MDC's tends to have characteristics of:
larger farm size and increasing corporate ownership of farms
An example of intensive agriculture in von Thünen's model is
market gardening and dairy
According to von Thünen's model, why is wheat farmed further from the market than dairy is?
Diary generates more revenue per acre.
In what zone of von Thünen model would the fruit production method of framing best fit?
The von Thünen model describes agricultural activity as it takes place in relation to the market. What statement generally represents the agricultural landscape according to the model?
Goods that are expensive to transport and spoil quickly must be located closer to the market
Johann Heinrich von Thünen model of agricultural land use is centered on what basic concept?
The farmers sell all of their farm production to a market
von Thünen model of rural land use is based on what premises?
Land values decrease farther from the urban center
According to von Thünen's model, what product is most likely to be farmed farthest away from the market?
In von Thünen's Model, in which ring around market centers is animal grazing most likely to take place?
What is the pattern in Von Thünen's model of land use?
Market gardening, dairy livestock fattening, commercial grain, livestock ranching
Von Thünen Model revolves around what fundamental principle?
The farmers in the area are all involved in commercial agriculture, selling their products to a market located at the center
- Northeast US, SE Canada, and NW Europe; growing in South & East Asia
- very labor intensive & expensive
area in which milk can be transported without spoiling; transporting has increased this area
- grain-seed from various grasses (wheat, corn, oats, barley, rice, millet, etc.)
- crops are for human consumption
- wheat is the largest exported crop in the world
- cereal grain oats, rye, barley, and wheat
- ranching commercial grazing of livestock over a huge area; soil is not good enough to support agriculture
- pampas raise cattle/sheep for export
raise cattle/sheep for export
- around the sea, California, Chile, SW Africa, & Australia
- California needs to be irrigated while Greece does not
growing of fruits, vegetables, nuts, flowers, and tree crops
- wine, olives, wheat for pasta
commercial gardening & fruit farming
- SE United States: long growing seasons & humid climates
- truck farming: grow fruits & vegetables that are in demand, can be sold out of the "back of the truck"
- large scale operations
von Thunen model
- explains the balance needed among transportation cost, bid-rent (cost of land) cost and weight of product; Bid Rent Theory by Alanso
- a commercial farmer decides which crop to grow and what animals to raise based on location & transportation to the market
- friction of distance
friction of distance
cost of the land vs. cost of transporting products to market
- increase in time/effort/energy as distance increases
1st ring of Von Thünen Model
horticulture & dairy
2nd ring of Von Thünen Model
3rd ring of Von Thünen Model
mixed crop & livestock (livestock fattening)
4th ring of Von Thünen Model
5th ring of Von Thünen Model
outside the rings of the Von Thünen Model
wildness - agriculture not sustainable
challenges of modern agriculture
1) need to meet increasing demand
2) is genetic modification an answer?
3) meed to be sustainable/environmentally friendly while still being economical
4) role of women
the need to meet increasing demand in modern agriculture
- more people & more food produced than ever before
1. expanding the land area used for agriculture; loss of prime agricultural land
2. increasing the productivity of land now used for agriculture
3. identifying new food sources (aquaculture)
4. increasing trade
5. eliminate food waste
genetically modified organisms in modern agriculture
- genome has been engineered in the laboratory in order to favor the expression of desired physiological traits or the production of desired biological products
- grow bigger & quicker
- add more nutrients
- disease resistant
- use of fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides
the need to be sustainable/environmentally friendly in modern agriculture
- limit factory farms, feedlots, monoculture (producing the same thing over & over again)
- growth of organic farming
- growth of urban farming
- sustainable agriculture:
1. sensitive land management
2. limited use of chemicals
3. better integration of crops of livestock
economics of farming in modern agriculture
- small farms have had to change to compete
- increase cost and necessity of mechanization and global competition
- rise in agribusiness: the ability for family farms to survive, food products being used from something else
- worldwide competition due to refrigeration
- increases urbanization (farms getting forced out)
women in modern agriculture
- 43% of agricultural labor force and well over 50% in LDC's
- men migrate to the city leaving women to do the agricultural work & men don't share the income all the time
- lack: land ownership, credit, seeds, market
- cultural issues