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History Test 2012 Moh.

Words for Hist Test...Marg/Fred
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corrupt bargain
Henry Clay chose J. A, In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Seminoles
Florida tribe that refused to accept removal and waged a bitter war against the American army from 1835 to 1837, Indians from Florida joined by runaway black slaves, retreated to the everglades. For seven years they waged a guerilla war that killed 1500 soldiers. ¼ were moved to Oklahoma where several thousand still live.
Manifest Destiny
This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory. G-d's right to do this.
Tariffs
Tariff of Abominations-J. Calhooun...S. Carolina-South being forced to buy more expensive Northern Manufactured goods.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
California
See how Ms. Mohler wants you to refer to the Monroe Doctrine-When Monroe warned foreign powers not to mess with U.S. landholdings.
Reservations
U.S. Government declared that Native Americans were to be put onto reservations. , Parcels of land set aside by the federal government for the Native Americans.
Polk
President when the U.S. and Mexico had hostilities between each other,, 11th President of the United States,expansionism led to the Mexican War and the annexation of California and much of the southwest (1795-1849)
Nativism
the belief that native-born Americans are superior to foreigners, Led to the formation of the Know-Knowthing Party
Transcendentalism
living a simple life and finding truth in nature and in personal emotion, A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the ideas that mind goes beyond matter, intuition is valuable, that each soul is part of the Great Spirit, and each person is part of a reality where only the invisible is truly real. Promoted individualism, self-reliance, and freedom from social constraints, and emphasized emotions.
William Lloyd Garrison
1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.
Mexican-American War
War between Mexico and the U.S over declined purchase of California, Texas Revolution, Mexican government instability and President Polk's urge to acquire half of Mexico for the U.S (Manifest Destiney)
Second Great Awakening
Second series of religious revivals that swept the nation in 1801. Based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans. It also had an effect on moral movements such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and moral reasoning against slavery.
Abolitionist Movement
The movement concentrated on ending slavery in the United States / Caused the greatest tension between the North and South / Often disagreed on tactics / Many did not want women involved
Wilmot Proviso
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Fugitive Slave Act
a law passed in 1850 that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
John Brown
An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory
Harper's Ferry
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
popular sovereignty
The doctrine that stated that the people of a territory had the right to decide their own laws by voting. In the Kansas-Nebraska Act, popular sovereignty would decide whether a territory allowed slavery.
Andrew Jackson
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, increased the presidential powers, and removed Native tribes from territories between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians, and within Florida (Seminoles).
Thoreau
Transcendentalist and friend of Emerson who believed in the importance of individual conscience; he urged people not to obey laws they considered unjust. This form of protest is called Civil Disobedience, which is also an essay he wrote. Did not want to support the U.S government, which allowed slavery and fought the War with Mexico. Instead of paying taxes that helped finance the war, Thoreau went to jail.
spoils system
Practiced by Jackson's administration, in which incoming officials throw out their former appointees and replace them with their own friends. He fired nearly 10 percent of the federal employees, most of them holdovers from the Adams administration, and gave their jobs to loyal Jacksonians.
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. The Cherokee and Seminoles fought back, but their resistance was short lived.
pet banks
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
Oregon Trail
A route from Independence, Missouri, to Oregon City, Oregon, used by pioneers traveling to the Oregon Territory.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Taylor
12th President of the United States, President during Mexican-American War
Cotton Gin
Invented by Eli Whitney in 1793. It removed seeds from cotton fibers. Now cotton could be processed quickly and cheaply. Results: more cotton is grown and more slaves are needed for more acres of cotton fields
utopianism
Belief in creation of ideal harmonious society. Popular among some intellectual elites between 1800-1850 as an answer to the pains of industrialization.
Dorothea Dix
Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums
Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Lowell Mills
textile mill located in a factory town in Massachusetts that employed farm girls who lived in company-owned boardinghouses
Frederick Douglass
United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
Gold Rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
Uncle tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Underground Railroad
a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North (U.S. and Canada)
democrats
Political party lead by Andrew Jackson from 1828 to 1856. Campaigned against strong central government and fought to end elitism.
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State, He served as sixth president under Monroe. In 1819, he drew up the Adams-Onis Treaty in which Spain gave the United States Florida in exchange for the United States dropping its claims to Texas. The Monroe Doctrine was mostly Adams' work.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification, The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Whigs
political party formed in 1832 in opposition to Andrew Jackson; led by Henry Clay, it opposed executive usurpation (a strong president) and advocated rechartering the National Bank, distributing western lands, raising the tariff, and funding internal improvements. It broke apart over the slavery issue in the early 1850s.
National Bank
Hamilton's big idea; fiercely opposed by Jefferson and Democratic-Rep. The bank would regulate money and draw investors; showed that the constitution could be construed in many a way., a bank chartered, or licensed by the national government
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
expansionism
the doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country
Texan Independence
After a few skirmishes with Mexican soldiers in 1835, Texas leaders met and organized a temporary government. Texas troops initially seized San Antonio, but lost it after the massacre of the outpost garrisoning the Alamo. U.S. lent no aid, Texas wins.
Buchanan
President elected in 1856; took no action when southern states seceded, Dred Scott Decision
Industrialization
the development of industry on an extensive scale
worker's movement
Movement led by workers in the U.S. who worked in factories to protest against their unhealthy conditions
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
Temperance
restraint or moderation, especially in regards to alcohol or food
women's rights
women in the 1800s had limited rights (property ownership, suffrage, education, careers), seneca falls convention: The seed for the first Woman's Rights Convention was planted in 1840, when Elizabeth Cady Stanton met Lucretia Mott at the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London, the conference that refused to seat Mott and other women delegates from America because of their sex.
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
Kansas-Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Harriet Tubman
United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
Republicans
Rivals of the Federalists who believed in a smaller government based on state rights. Their rivalry sparked tensions with Federalists, creating a political party system.
South Carolina
first state to secede
Cherokees
an Indian nation that developed their own written language,converted to Christianity, developed their own system of government, and considered agriculture their career., one of the major Indian groups pushed west during the Indian Removal; had never had any major conflict with the American government; some had even attended law school;
nullification
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Webster
senator who challenged states' rights in Marshall's court, in favor of keeping the states together, was a senator
Market Revolution
Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from the combined impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the development of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
Irish and Germans
immigrant Groups prominent in Antebellum America, What were the 2 largest immigrant groups which came to the US in the 1840-1850's?
telegraph
machine invented by Samuel Morse in 1837 that used a system of dots and dashes to send messages across long distances electronically through a wire
Alamo
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
Immigration
Migration to a new location.
Henry Clay
Senator who persuaded Congress to accept the Missouri Compromise, which admitted Maine into the Union as a free state, and Missouri as a slave state
Farm inventions
reaper, steel plow, and cotton gin...Check your notes!
Nat Turner
Slave in Virginia who started a slave rebellion in 1831 believing he was receiving signs from God His rebellion was the largest sign of black resistance to slavery in America and led the state legislature of Virginia to a policy that said no one could question slavery.
Gadsden Purchase
purchase of land from Mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-Mexico boundary
gag rule
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress
Seneca Falls
The site of the women's rights convention that met in July in 1848. They met in the Wesleyan Chapel, and 300 men and women attended. At the convention, they vote in the Seneca Falls Declaration, which was signed by 32 men.
Dred Scott
A black slave, had lived with his master for 5 years in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. Backed by interested abolitionists, he sued for freedom on the basis of his long residence on free soil. The ruling on the case was that He was a black slave and not a citizen, so he had no rights.
secession
the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War