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Exam 4 week 3
Terms in this set (31)
Food and sex are potent motivators for animals and humans, and drugs of abuse have similar brain profile
What is the 'reward pathway'?
GABA (reduces fire of neuron) - The main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain - it reduces the firing of the post-synaptic neurons
Glutamate (go signal) - The main excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain - it increases the firing of the post
What are the neurotransmitters?
Preferred method for prescription drugs
Swallowed, dissolved and absorbed naturally
Some can be absorbed through the stomach and act faster (e.g., alcohol)
What is oral administration of drugs?
More control over dose, fast action, less breakdown
Subcutaneous (tb test) - under the skin
Intramuscular - into muscle
Intravenous - into vein (fastest method)
What is injection?
Absorbed through the lungs into the blood
Some anesthetics (e.g., laughing gas)
Preferred for tobacco and marijuana
What is inhalation?
Relatively fast absorption
Blood vessels are close to brain
Preferred method for cocaine
What is mucous-membrane absorption?
what delivers the most concentration of the drug most immediately?
Decreased sensitivity to a drug as a result of exposure to it
What is a dose-response curve?
Metabolic Tolerance - A change in body chemistry to reduce the ability of the drug to reach the brain
Functional Tolerance - A change in the reactivity of the brain (receptors, transporters) to the drug. Most tolerance is this one!
Compare and contrast metabolic tolerance and functional tolerance.
Also known as context-dependent tolerance
Tolerance is maximal when drugs are taken/given in the same locations repeatedly
What is conditioned drug tolerance?
Caffeine functions as an adenosine blocker
Blocking these receptors increases dopamine in the brain
Tolerance - Greater doses are needed after prolonged exposure - true of coffee drinkers
Withdrawal - Reaction to not having a drug - typically opposite to the drug effects(Headache, lethargy)
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - caffeine
Considered a depressant because it dampens neuron firing
Low doses act as a stimulant!
Also a diuretic - increases urine production
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - alcohol
Nicotine mimics acetylcholine and binds to an ion channel receptor
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - tabacco
All members of this class increase monoamine transmitters in some way
Some are natural (cocaine, ephedrine), but some are synthetic (amphetamines)
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - stimulants
Opium - sap from poppies
Opiate - derived from the sap
Opioid - partly synthetic to mimic opiates
Bind to opioid receptors in the brain, replacing endogenous chemicals
Effective pain killers
Morphine, heroin, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, percoset
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - opioids
LSD - similar to serotonin
Mescaline - similar to DA, norepinephrine
MDMA - similar to amphetamines
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - hallucinogens
Primarily smoked, but some synthetics
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol is the active ingredient (THC)
Marijuana - generally leaves and flowers
Hashish - dried resin from female plant
Receptors are found all over the brain
define the tolerance and withdrawal symptoms of each as well as each reward pathway - cannabis
Dependence refers to behavior and physiological changes/effects
Abuse refers to a particular pattern of maladaptive behavior
Compare and contrast dependence and abuse.
Habitual (drug) users who continue to use despite its adverse effects on their health and social life and despite repeated attempts to quit
Define an addict.
Addicts take drugs to combat withdrawal
What are dependence theories?
Addicts take drugs for their positive effects
What are positive-incentive theories
Separates drug "wanting" from drug "liking"
Over prolonged use, the "wanting" component is sensitized (increases), but the "liking" remains the same or decreases
Define incentive-sensitization theory.
In order to develop treatments and to understand the mechanisms of drug addiction, we need animal models of human addiction
Typically one of two procedures is used:
Conditioned place preference (CPP)
Intravenous self-administration (IVSA)
Describe models of addiction and list the two behavioral tests usually employed.
Animals with a tube implanted into jugular
Perform an action to receive drug infusions
Motivation can be tested by increasing the amount of work required for the next infusion
What is the intravenous self-administration test (IVSA)?
In humans, exposure to the drug of abuse after quitting can cause a relapse
"Falling off the wagon" refers to going back to drinking after quitting
What is drug-induced reinstatement?
Certain cues are associated with drugs
People, locations, items, smells, etc.
Any of these cues can become predictors of drugs
Differentiate with cue-induced reinstatement.
Addicts often report that stressful life events can signal a relapse to drug taking
This is commonly seen with smokers, dieters and problem drinkers as a means to cope
In animals, following extinction of drug-taking behavior, animals are exposed to (generally) mild foot shock stress
This stressor reliably reinstates drug-seeking
Define how human addicts PET scans look compared to non-users in terms of dopamine receptors.
Drugs change brain chemistry and function - irreversibly in some cases
Prolonged drug use also changes the way the brain responds
Describe how addiction impacts brain structure and function
Animal are repeatedly exposed to a drug in a particular environment and saline in another
On the test day, they are permitted to choose which side they want to stay on.
What is the Conditioned Place Preference CPP?
Meant to model relapse in drug addicts
Lapse - taking the drug after quitting
Relapse - starting drug-taking behavior again
What is Reinstatement testing?
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