43 terms

Chapter 14

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Approximately 75% of Earth's surface is covered with water. The amount of that water that is drinkable by humans is:
much less than 1%
Know the water cycle
should have a cloud, land, a body of water, and plants, animals, or both. They should show water falling as precipitation and rising as evaporation or transpiration.
The sector that uses the highest percentage of water globally is industry.
False
When access to water is limited only by one's ability to pay for it, this is known as:
economic water scarcity
The uppermost water level of the saturated zone of an aquifer is found is known as the
water table
True or False: Most aquifers are not underground lakes of water but rather are regions of porous rock saturated with water.
True
Infiltration is
made harder in urban and suburban areas by roads, buildings, and lawns.
If too much water is removed by a well in coastal areas
saltwater can seep into the aquifer.
The main difference between high-tech and low-tech methods of wastewater treatment is that high-tech methods:
use toxic chemicals to purify water
Dams can be used to store water and increase water supplies, but they come with trade-offs such as:
habitat destruction, loss of water from evaporation, and regional conflicts downstream from the dam
One creative way that some communities deal with wastewater is:
pumping it through a separate water system for people to use for laundry and for yard irrigation.
Water on Earth
97% salt water, 2% polar icecaps, 1% freshwater
Reducing the threats to ocean ecosystems
designate vulnerable areas as marine protected areas, limit development in vulnerable areas, prohibit bottom trawling for fish and vulnerable areas and reduce overfishing in general, reduce use of fossil fuel, reduce pollution
Rivers
tributaries, floodplains
Lakes and ponds
oligotrophic, eutrotrophic: literal zone, limnetic zone
Groundwater and Florida aquifer
salt water intrusion
Saltwater intrusion
the inflow of ocean water into freshwater aquifer that happens when an aquifer has some of its freshwater stores
Water scarcity
not having access to enough clean water
Aquifer
an underground, permeable region of soil or rock that is saturated with water
Infiltration
the process of water soaking into the ground
Water Table
the uppermost water level of the saturated zone of an aquifer
Effluent
wastewater discharged into the environment
Coliform bacteria
bacteria often found in the intestinal tract of animals; monitored to look for fecal contamination of water
Wastewater treatment
the process of removing contaminants from wastewater to make it safe enough to release into the environment
Potable
clean enough for consumption
Wetland
an ecosystem that is permanently or seasonally flooded
Dams
a structure that blocks the flow of water in a river or stream
Reservoirs
abiotic or biotic components of the environment that serve as storage places for cycling nutrients; an artificial lake formed when a river is impounded by a dam
Desalination
the removal of salt and minerals from seawater to make it suitable for consumption
Water footprint
the amount of water consumed by a given group or for a process
Most freshwater on Earth is found in
glaciers and ice caps
Communities can lack access to enough water because
there is not enough clean freshwater in the area to meet the needs of the people; there is enough water but some people cannot afford to buy it; sanitation problems contaminate nearby freshwater sources
How do aquifers naturally get more water?
it enters by soaking into the ground
In coastal areas, removing water from an aquifer faster than it is replaced can
lead to saltwater intrusion
Which of the following choices would decrease your personal water footprint the most?
buy used blue jeans at a second-hand store
What single home use of water typically represents the largest water use in US households?
toilets
The release of water vapor from plants is a major source of atmospheric moisture. This process is called
transpiration
Which sector is the biggest user of water?
agriculture
The wastewater treatment facility at Arcata, CA shows us that
natural wetlands can be effective wastewater treatment systems
Transpiration
the loss of water vapor from plants
Evaporation
the conversion of water from a liquid state to a gaseous state
Condensation
the conversion of water from a gaseous state to a liquid state
Precipitation
rain, snow, sleet, or any other form of water falling from the atmosphere