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APES Test Chapter 5-6
Terms in this set (71)
when populations of two different species interact in such a way over a long period of time, changes in the gene pool of one species can lead to changes in the gene pool of the other (ex: when predators adapt to better catch prey and when prey adapt to better avoid predators)
cluster where resources are available, there is a better chance of encountering clumps of resources, protection from predators, gives some predator species a better chance at catching prey
why do some species live in clumps?
combination of all factors that act to limit the growth of a population
the maximum population of a given species that a particular habitat can sustain indefinitely
reproductive time lag
the period needed for the birth rate to fall and for the death rate to rise in response to resource overconsumption
when a species makes an area more suitable for other species
will increase biodiversity up to a point, and when you pass this point and have too much edge, then you decrease biodiversity
Habitat fragmentation (like freeways) creates islands (with edges)
theory of island biography
the number of different species found on an island is determined by the interactions of two factors: the rate at which new species immigrate to the island and the rate at which species become extinct on the island.
species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem
species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced to an ecosystem by humans
species whose decline serves as early warnings that a community or ecosystem is being degraded
species that play roles affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem
occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources
predator feeds on prey as part of a food web, forming a predator-prey relationship (herbivores, carnivores, omnivores)
Prey Acquisition and Predator Avoidance
predators adapt ways of acquiring different prey (pursuit and ambush, chemical warfare, camouflage), and prey evolve to avoid the predators (chemical warfare, warning coloration, mimicry, behavioral strategies)
species that compete for similar resources evolve traits that allow them to share resources by using parts of them, using them at different times, or using them in different ways. (Ex: birds that feed from different parts of a tree)
parasitism mutualism commensalism
3 Types of Symbiotic Relationships
when one species feeds on another organism by living in or on the host. This benefits the parasite but harms the host.
when both species benefit
when one species benefits and the other is left unharmed, but does not benefit
normally gradual change in species composition in a given area (the types and numbers of species in biological communities and ecosystems change in response to changing environmental conditions). This increases biodiversity, and thus the sustainability of communities and ecosystems, by increasing species richness and interactions among species. This is an example of natural ecological restoration.
primary ecological succession
the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas where there is no soil in a terrestrial ecosystems or no bottom sediment in an aquatic ecosystem (takes a long time)
secondary ecological succession
a series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop in places containing soil or bottom sediment. Begins in an area where an ecosystem has been disturbed, removed, or destroyed, but some bottom sediment remains.
first hardly species—often microbes, mosses, and lichens—that begin colonizing a site as the first stage of ecological succession
: when a species makes an area more suitable for other species
something that disturbs environmental succession like fire, hurricanes, clear-cutting of forests, and invasions of nonnative species that can interrupt a particular stage of succession.
Intermediate disturbance hypothesis
a medium sized disturbance (small being not enough to make a change and a large being so much that it destroys) increases diversity, and allows for change
Just enough to change things up a bit to allow new things to grow
fairly stable, self sustaining community in an advanced stage of ecological succession; usually has a diverse array of species and ecological niches; captures and uses energy and cycles critical chemicals more efficiently than simpler immature communities.
the ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances
the ability of a living system to be restored through secondary succession after a more severe disturbance
1. Limiting factor principal
2. Population size
3. Age structure
4. Range of Tolerance
4 Characteristics of Population of Dynamics
birth rate, death rate, immigration, emigration
Factors Affecting Population Size
the amount a species could grow if it had unlimited resources
Intrinsic Rate of Increase
same as biotic potential
maximum population a given habitat can sustain
the number of individuals in a population found in a particular area or volume
some factors that can kill members of a population (effect does not have anything to do with the density of the population)
some factors that limit population growth have a greater effect as the population's density increases
growth in which some quantity, such as population size or economic output, increases at a constant rate per unit of time. This yields a J shaped curve.
Predator-Prey Cycle (top-down, bottom-up):
size of predator and prey population is controlled by the scarcity of one or more resources
pattern in which exponential growth occurs when the population is small, and population growth decreases steadily with time as the population approaches the carrying capacity. This yields an S shaped curve. (When the exponential growth levels off)
population size fluctuates slightly above and below its carrying capacity
when the population occasionally surges to a high peak and then crashes to a more stable lower level. Short lived, rapidly reproducing species.
there is no recurring patterns in the fluctuation of the population size
populations rise and fall every few years
r selected species
many, usually small offspring, little or no parental care, massive deaths of offspring, insects, bacteria, algae, weeds, typically experience exponential growth
k selected species
competitors, reproduce late in life, small number of offspring with long life spans, young offspring grow inside mother, long time to mature, logistic growth
early survivorship curve
early loss, r selected
constant survivorship curve
put energy in both having many babies and parental growth
late survivorship curve
late losses, k selected species
Population Change Equation
(Births/1000) x 100
(Deaths/1000) x 100
Annual Birth Rate Equation
Births-Deaths/total population 1000 x 100
the average number of kids a couple must have to replace themselves
Total Fertility Rate
the average number of children born to women in a population during their reproductive years
the average number of years a newborn infant can be expected to live
Infant Mortality Rate
the number of babies out of every thousand born who die before their first birthday
a large percentage of people are younger than 15; even if women have an average of only a few kids, the large number of girls entering into their prime reproductive years creates a large population boom
the population slowly grows because the death rates are closer to the birth rates than in rapid growth
when a country is stable and is not growing
when a country has more seniors and not as many reproductive aged people, the population decreases
the movement of people into (immigration) and out of (emigration) specific geographic areas
people who had to leave their homes because of water or food shortages, drought, flooding, or other environmental crises.
helps reduce the number of births and abortions throughout the world by using birth control.
Empowerment of Women
women have fewer children when they are educated, in control of their fertility, earn an income, and live in societies that do not suppress their rights
preindustrial transitional industrial postindustrial
Demographic Transition Stages:
population growth very slowly because of high birth rate (to compensate for high infant mortality) and a high death rate
- population growth rapidly because birth rates are high and death rates drop because of improved food production and health
population growth slows as both birth and death rates drop because of improved food production, health, and education (empowering women too)
population growth levels off and then declines as birth rates equal and then call below death rates.
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