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Chapter 1: Psychiatry Founders and Research methods.

Wilhelm Wundt

German psychologist-founder of psychology

John B. Watson

Founder of behaviorism

Margaret Floy Washburn

First American woman to earn a Ph.D in Psychology

Edward Tichener

Psychologist who founded structuralism

B.F. Skinner

American psychologist of behaviorism developed operant condition. Emphasis on environment and ovserved behavior

Carl Rodgers

American psychologist founded humanistic psychology

Ivan Pavlov

Russian psychologist of behaviorism "classical conditioning"

Abraham Maslow

American humanistic psychology developed theory of motivation and heirachy of needs.

William James

American philosopher and psychologist who found psychology in the United States. Known for functionalism.

Stanley Hall

American psychologist who established first research lab and American Psychological Association.

Sigmund Freud

Austrian doctor who was the founder of psychoanalysis

Charles Darwin

Naturalist/Scientist who founded theory of evolution. "Orgin of the Species"

Mary Whiton Calkins

First woman president of the American Psychological Association

independent variable

The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change. Also called Treatment of interest.


a testable theory or idea

humanistic psychology

school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint with emphasis of each persons unique potential for growth and self-direction.


Early school of psychology emphasis on purpose or function of behaviors and mental experience.

experimental method

Experimental method of investigation that demonstrates cause and effect relationship by manipulating one factor to produce change to another factor

experimental group/condition

The group in the experiment that is exposed to all conditions including the independent variable.

expectancy effects

Changes in a subject's behavior based on the belief that change should happen (placebo effect)

evolutionary psychology

Application of principles of evolution including natural selection to explain psychological processes

empirical evidence

Evidence based on objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.


A belief that one's culture or ethnic group is superior to all and related tendency to use that as a standard to judge all other cultures.

double-blind study

Technique where neither the participant or researcher know the conditions that have been assigned to the participants

descriptive research methods

Method of observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behavior and events.

dependent variable

The factor that is observed and measured for change in the experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable

demand characteristics

In research study the clues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicates the type of response that is expected of participant.


The attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviors shared by a group of people and passed from generation to generation

cross-cultural psychology

Branch of psychology that studies effects of culture on behavior and mental processes

critical thinking

Active process of trying to minimize influence of biases while rationally evaluating evidence.

correlational study

Research strategy that allows precise calculation how strongly two factors are related to each other.

correlational coefficient

Numerical indication of the magnitude and dirction of the relationship; correlation between two variables.

comparative psychology

Branch of psychology that studies the behavior of different animal species

collectivistic cultures

Cultures that emphasize need and goals of the group over the individual

case study

Intensive study of a single individual and small group of people

control group/condition

The group that is exposed to all conditions EXCEPT the independent variable.


Social school of psychology and viewpoints with emphasis on observable behaviors especially as they pertain to learning.


A factor that varies or changes in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.


Tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations


A questionnaire or interview designe to investigate the opinons, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.


Branch of math used in research to organize, summarize, and interpret data.

scientific method

A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedurs that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, generate evidence and draw conclusions.

statistically significant

A mathematical indication that research was not likely to happen by chance.


A selected segment of the poplulation used to represent a group being studied; subset of a population

rule of falsifiabilty

In order for a claim to be scientifically tested and proved true there must be evidence that could prove the claim false.

representative sample

A selected segment that closely parallels the larger population being studies on relevant characteristics


To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase validity of the original findings

random assignment

Process of assigning participants to the conditions so all have an equal chance of being assigned to any conditions in the study.


The science of behavior and mental processes

random selection

Process in which subject are selected randomly from a larger group and every group member has a equal chance of being included.


Psychotherapy originated by Freud that uses free association, dream interpretation, etc are used to explore repressed impulses or conflicts.


false science

practice effect

a change in performance from mere repetition of a task.

positive correlation

Two factors vary systematically in the same direction; increase and decrease in size together.

placebo control group

The group that was exposed to the fake independent variable.

paranormal phenomena

Alleged abilities or events that fall outside the range of normal experiences and established scientific explanations

operational definition

A precise description of how the variables will be manipulated or measured.

negative correlation

A finding that two factors are systematically in opposite directions one increases and the other decreases.

naturalistic observation

The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they are occurring in a natural setting.


A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends.

individualistic cultures

Cultures that emphasizes the needs and goals of the individual over the group.

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