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Discovering Psychology Chapter 1

Chapter 1: Psychiatry Founders and Research methods.
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Wilhelm Wundt
German psychologist-founder of psychology
John B. Watson
Founder of behaviorism
Margaret Floy Washburn
First American woman to earn a Ph.D in Psychology
Edward Tichener
Psychologist who founded structuralism
B.F. Skinner
American psychologist of behaviorism developed operant condition. Emphasis on environment and ovserved behavior
Carl Rodgers
American psychologist founded humanistic psychology
Ivan Pavlov
Russian psychologist of behaviorism "classical conditioning"
Abraham Maslow
American humanistic psychology developed theory of motivation and heirachy of needs.
William James
American philosopher and psychologist who found psychology in the United States. Known for functionalism.
Stanley Hall
American psychologist who established first research lab and American Psychological Association.
Sigmund Freud
Austrian doctor who was the founder of psychoanalysis
Charles Darwin
Naturalist/Scientist who founded theory of evolution. "Orgin of the Species"
Mary Whiton Calkins
First woman president of the American Psychological Association
independent variable
The purposely manipulated factor thought to produce change. Also called Treatment of interest.
hypothesis
a testable theory or idea
humanistic psychology
school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint with emphasis of each persons unique potential for growth and self-direction.
functionalism
Early school of psychology emphasis on purpose or function of behaviors and mental experience.
experimental method
Experimental method of investigation that demonstrates cause and effect relationship by manipulating one factor to produce change to another factor
experimental group/condition
The group in the experiment that is exposed to all conditions including the independent variable.
expectancy effects
Changes in a subject's behavior based on the belief that change should happen (placebo effect)
evolutionary psychology
Application of principles of evolution including natural selection to explain psychological processes
empirical evidence
Evidence based on objective observation, measurement, and/or experimentation.
ethnocentrism
A belief that one's culture or ethnic group is superior to all and related tendency to use that as a standard to judge all other cultures.
double-blind study
Technique where neither the participant or researcher know the conditions that have been assigned to the participants
descriptive research methods
Method of observing behavior in order to describe the relationship among behavior and events.
dependent variable
The factor that is observed and measured for change in the experiment; thought to be influenced by the independent variable
demand characteristics
In research study the clues or signals expressed by the researcher that communicates the type of response that is expected of participant.
culture
The attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviors shared by a group of people and passed from generation to generation
cross-cultural psychology
Branch of psychology that studies effects of culture on behavior and mental processes
critical thinking
Active process of trying to minimize influence of biases while rationally evaluating evidence.
correlational study
Research strategy that allows precise calculation how strongly two factors are related to each other.
correlational coefficient
Numerical indication of the magnitude and dirction of the relationship; correlation between two variables.
comparative psychology
Branch of psychology that studies the behavior of different animal species
collectivistic cultures
Cultures that emphasize need and goals of the group over the individual
case study
Intensive study of a single individual and small group of people
control group/condition
The group that is exposed to all conditions EXCEPT the independent variable.
behaviorism
Social school of psychology and viewpoints with emphasis on observable behaviors especially as they pertain to learning.
variable
A factor that varies or changes in ways that can be observed, measured, and verified.
theory
Tentative explanation that tries to integrate and account for the relationship of various findings and observations
survey
A questionnaire or interview designe to investigate the opinons, behaviors, or characteristics of a particular group.
statistics
Branch of math used in research to organize, summarize, and interpret data.
scientific method
A set of assumptions, attitudes, and procedurs that guide researchers in creating questions to investigate, generate evidence and draw conclusions.
statistically significant
A mathematical indication that research was not likely to happen by chance.
sample
A selected segment of the poplulation used to represent a group being studied; subset of a population
rule of falsifiabilty
In order for a claim to be scientifically tested and proved true there must be evidence that could prove the claim false.
representative sample
A selected segment that closely parallels the larger population being studies on relevant characteristics
replicate
To repeat or duplicate a scientific study in order to increase validity of the original findings
random assignment
Process of assigning participants to the conditions so all have an equal chance of being assigned to any conditions in the study.
psychology
The science of behavior and mental processes
random selection
Process in which subject are selected randomly from a larger group and every group member has a equal chance of being included.
psychoanalysis
Psychotherapy originated by Freud that uses free association, dream interpretation, etc are used to explore repressed impulses or conflicts.
pseudoscience
false science
practice effect
a change in performance from mere repetition of a task.
positive correlation
Two factors vary systematically in the same direction; increase and decrease in size together.
placebo control group
The group that was exposed to the fake independent variable.
paranormal phenomena
Alleged abilities or events that fall outside the range of normal experiences and established scientific explanations
operational definition
A precise description of how the variables will be manipulated or measured.
negative correlation
A finding that two factors are systematically in opposite directions one increases and the other decreases.
naturalistic observation
The systematic observation and recording of behaviors as they are occurring in a natural setting.
meta-analysis
A statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends.
individualistic cultures
Cultures that emphasizes the needs and goals of the individual over the group.