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Female Reproductive Physiology 2
Terms in this set (37)
The fusion of the male (sperm) and female (ovum) gametes.
Occurs in the ampula of the fallopian tube where the fallopian tube falls around the ovaries and captures the ovum (facilitated by estrogen).
Oogenesis and Fertilization
Stages of Fertilization
1. Sperm recognizes the ZP3 glycoproteins in the ovum zona pellucida. The ZP3 glycoprotein receptors on the sperm bind.
2. Acrosomal reaction occurs- protease acrosin cuts through the zona pellucida.
3. sperm enters the perivitelline space, binds to oolemma and enters ooplasm.
4. sperm head disappears and nucleus decondenses to form male pronucleus
Blocking of polyspermy
Fusion of sperm in egg initiates Zona block and vitelline blocks.
calcium entry due to sperm and egg fusion leads to exocitosis of cortical granules which releases glycosidases and proteases inactivate and degrade ZP3 to prevent polyspermy fertilization of one egg.
Transport and implantation
Fertilized egg takes 3-4 days to reach uterine cavity. Movement is facilitated by fallopian tube contraction and ciliary epithelial cell lining. During transport, the ovum grows and divides into a BLASTOCYST.
Fallopian cells lining the tube secrete nutrients to the blastocyst.
Blastocyt remains in uterus 2-4 days before implantation and is nourished by the endometrium.
Trophoblast layer development facilitates implantation by secretion of proteolytic enzymes that digest and liquefy the endometrial cells.
Brain and spinal cord development
Major heart and blood vessels
Organogenesis almost complete
After implantation, the trophoblast differentiates into the outer synchtiotrophoblast and inner cytotrophoblast.
1. syncytiotrophoblast: form attachment to the uterus which maternal blood vessels will penetrate.
2. cytotrophoblast differentiates into chorionic villi where fetal blood supply develops.
In the fully formed placenta maternal blood circulates through the intervillous spaces. Fetal blood flows through the chorionic villi.
Major function of the placenta is to provide diffusion of food (glucose, fatty acids, ketones, electrolytes) from maternal blood to the fetus. Also diffusion of excretory products (Nitrogen, urea, ureic acid and creatine) from the fetus back into the mother.
Human chorionic gonadotropin
Secreted by trophoblast cells.
Prevents involution of corpus luteum and stimulates growth.
Stimulates Corpus Leuteum to excessively secrete progesterone and estrogen.
In a male fetus, promotes production of testosterone.
Secreted by trophoblast cells.
Growth of breast ductal tissue.
Female external genital growth.
Relaxation of the sacroiliac joints and pubis - for fetal passage.
Generally involved in fetal growth.
Secreted by trophoblast cells.
Endometrial development and enlargement.
Decreases contraction of the uterus, so prevents spontaneous abortion.
Estrogen and Progesterone are also responsible for lactation.
Human choionic somatommatropin
Acts as a
growth hormone for the fetus
Decrease insulin sensitivity
decreases utilization of glucose
by the mother. (To provide more glucose for the fetus; can result in
gestational diabetes in the mother
Increase free fatty acid release
from the mother fat stores for maternal metabolism.
Oxytocin and Prolactin
Physiological responses to pregnancy in the mother
Increase in BMR
Inc C.O. and RBC production
INC blood volume
=fluid and salt retention)
, pulm respiration and
The process of childbirth when the uterus becomes excitable and begins strong rhythmic contractions due to estrogen (stimulant), progesterone (relaxant), and oxytocin hormonal input.
Uterine contraction that occurs weakly and infrequently which INC in freq and intensity as pregnancy progresses towards labor.
Uterine phase 0 of partuition
-from implantation to late gestation.
-Myometrium remains relaxed. Cervix remains rigid. Due to Progesterone.
-Myometrial contraction are low.
-Prostaglandins, oxytocin are low.
Uterine phase 1 of partuition
Increased myometrium response to oxytocin
-Increased oxytocin receptors.
-Increase in number and size of gap junctions in myometrium>> faster conduction of action potential between myometrial cells.
-Cervical ripening, caused by prostaglandin, becomes soft and yielding.
Uterine phase 2 of partuition
period of active labor caused by oxytocin and prostaglandins
-Uterine contractions, cervical dilation, fetal descent, and delivery .
-Cervical effacement/cervical canal dilation (STAGE I) >> Expulsion of the fetus (STAGE II) >> Separation and expulsion of the placenta (STAGE III).
Initiation of partuition
Due to the
4 phases of lactation
ductal and lobuloalveolar growth
Estrogen stimulates ductal growth and stromal growth
and also promotes
in the breast tissue.
After ductal growth,
progesterone and estrogen causes lobular growth
, budding of the alveoli.
Growth hormones, prolactin and adrenal glucocorticoids are also involved in mammogenesis.
Synthesis and secretion of milk from the alveoli
(secreted by mothers
ANTERIOR pituitary glands
secretion of the milk.
Growth hormone, thyroid hormone, corticosteroids
are also involved in stimulation of milk production.
process of milk ejection or milk let-down
This process is regulated by
Prolactin and oxytocin.
Prolactin simulates secretion in mammary alveoli.
contraction of smooth muscle
lining ducts and alveoli or the breast.
maintenance of milk production
After birth the prolactin levels are maintained by suckling
breast feeding ceases, then the prolactin levels fall
response which leads to a
decrease neurosensory input to the pituitary glands.
This leads to involution of the breast tissue.
Alveolar epithelium undergoes apoptosis/remodeling and glands revert to the pre-pregnancy state.
pregnancy lost before 20 weeks.
heavy vaginal bleeding, clotting, pregnancy cramps/pain.
Normal pregnancy is 37-40 weeks
Premature Labor starts after 20 weeks
before 37 weeks.
premature babies are at a risk for future health problems.
-4-8% women develop this.
-due to decreased insulin production or hormonal desensitization to insulin.
-separation of the placenta from the uterine wall.
-common in third trimester.
-heavy vaginal bleeding, clotting, pregnancy cramps/pain.
low lying placenta, covering the cervical opening
-can cause bleeding in late pregnancy.
-because cervical opening is blocked,
C-section delivery maybe required
Rapid rise in arterial blood pressure
Salt and water retention by the kidney.
Development of edema.
Arterial spasms in kidney, brain and liver.
Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rates are decreased, due to thickening of the the glomerular tufts.
caused by excessive corticosteroids or from autoimmune reaction/allergic reaction to the fetus
Extreme vascular spasm
throughout the body and convulsions that occur shortly before partuition.
Coma, decreased kidney output, liver malfunction,
Treatment: combination of fast-acting vasodilators and termination of pregnancy.
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