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Alexander the Great

Greek conqueror, ruled largest empire in the world

Hellenic Civilization

ordering natural world, society oriented, idealistic

Hellenistic Civilization

escaping hardship, individual oriented, realistic


mental pleasure is important, physical pleasure in moderation


fate controls life, happiness is excepting fate


lived in Crete


first true Greeks


Roman lower class- farmers, merchants, laborers, artisans


first emperor of Rome

Fall of Rome



Frankish ruler, united local tribes, influenced Christianity

Pepin of Heristal

Mayor of the Palace

Charles Martel

son of Pepin of Heristal

Pepin the Short

son of Charles Martel


son of Pepin the Short, expanded, crowned emperor by Pope on December 25, 800


economic and social system about self-sufficient estates made of villiages and farms


lower class nobles given land by powerful lords for military service


land granted to vassals


lords loyal to king, local lords provided protection, more organized than manorialism


first born son inherits all land

1000 AD

end of viking invasion

Heavy plow, padded horse collar, 3-field system

causes of second agricultural revolution

Excess food prodution, population growth, realeased serfs, growth of cities

effects of second agricultural revolution

Battle of Hastings

William the Conqueror vs. Harold over the English throne

Holy Roman Empire

area around Germany, ruled by weak emperor

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