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Virginia Company

A pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I with the purposes of establishing settlements on the American coast. British people could invest in the company, but rarely saw any return until it eventually collapsed.


Indian chief of the Powhatan people who rules most of Virginia & was helpful to Jamestown settlers until they continued to move on his territory

John Smith

Soldier commanded by the Virginia Company to be in charge of the new colony in America. Imposed strict discipline and forced everyone to work.

"Starving Time"

The winter of 1609 to 1610. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.

John Rolfe

He was one of the English settlers at Jamestown (and he married Pocahontas). He discovered how to successfully grow tobacco in Virginia and cure it for export, which made Virginia an economically successful colony.


Export that helped bring stability to the colony but also increased other English Settler's desire for Indian Lands.

Headright Policy

Anyone who brought a share in the company, or who could transport himself to Virgina, could have 50 acres and 50 acres more for any servants he might send or bring.

Indentured Servants

colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years

Anglican Church

Conservative/ rational church that dominated throughout the southern colonies for most of the 17th century.

Bacon's Rebellion

a revolt against powerful colonial authority in Jamestown by nathaniel bacon and a group of landless frontier settlers that resulted in the burning of jamestown in 1676


Separists who founded a New England Colony to establish a Christian Commonwealth after being persecuted by the Anglican Church and James I in England. Arrived at Plymouth on the Mayflower in 1620.


The New England colony the Pilgrims colonized to establish and help prosper the Christian religion.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

One of the first settlements in New England; established in 1630 and became a major Puritan colony. Became the state of Massachusetts, originally where Boston is located. It was a major trading center, and absorbed the Plymouth community


Protestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.

John Winthrop

As governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony was instrumental in forming the colony's government and shaping its legislative policy. He envisioned the colony, centered in present-day Boston, as a "city upon a hill" from which Puritans would spread religious righteousness throughout the world.

"A Model of Christianity"

Speech told by Winthrop that Mass. Bay community could achieve becoming truly Godly so that they would be able to live and prosper because that is only possible through God.


The pact with God that will earn the Mass. Bay Colony their salvation, true Christians could enter it to go and worship God, to seek God, and use the Bible as ultimate guidance.

Roger Williams

Puritan who arrived to New England in 1631who believed that a true church shouldn't have anything to do with the English government and the Anglican Church. Founded Providence Rhode Island where he legislated freedom of religion.

Anne Hutchinson

Fought against Puritan leaders because she claimed to receive revelations of the Holy Spirit and that Puritan leaders were preaching the covenant of works and not of grace.

Rhode Island

The smallest colony in America that allowed people, mostly banned refugees, to live in an area of freedom of religion and a government based on people's consent.

Triangular Trade

A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Aferica sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

Half-way Covenant

A Puritan church document; In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; It lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; Women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations.

Salem Witch Trials

Girls accused many people of the town doing work of the devil by doing witchcraft. Many were killed or sent to jail.

Pequot War

War between white settlers in Mass. and the Pequot Indians there. Began when the whites accused the Indians of killing a colonist so they set fire to the village and killed all but 7 of them. Survivors retaliated but lost in 1638.

King Phillips War

1675-1676, Chief Phillip of the Wampanoag tribe along with the remaining tribes of southern New England attacked white settlers but lost and over 3,000 Indians were killed.


A philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Europe that fostered the belief that one could reform society by discovering rational laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientific as the laws of physics. (pp. 468, 574)

Benjamin Franklin

Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.

Poor Richard's Almanac

Famous publication of pithy sayings glorifying homespun virtues whuch was written by Ben Franklin between 1732-1758

Great Awakening

Once the Enlightenment came along, people furthered themselves from Orthodoxy, but from this also emerged a revival of faith with evangelism to those skeptics in the 1730s.

Jonathan Edwards

Minister, Philosopher, theogian, who helped spiritually revive his congregation in Mass. by describing the torments of hell and the glorious heaven 1734.

George Whitefield

English Minister Evangelist, a part of the "New Lights," who reawakened the notion of individual salvation in 1738.

New Lights vs Old Lights

Revivalists versus Anti Revivalists during the Great Awakening.


an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests

Navigation Acts

Laws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.

"Salutary Neglect"

An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

George Washington

1754 He had led troops (rather unsuccessfully) during the French and Indian War, and had surrendered Fort Necessity to the French. He was appointed commander-in-chief of the Continental Army, and was much more successful in this second command.

Peace of Paris

1763 This ended the Seven Years War/French and Indian war between Britain and her allies and France and her allies. The result was the acquisition of all land east of the Mississippi plus Canada for Britain, and the removal of the French from mainland North America.

Pontiac's Rebellion

1763 Indian's feared that English would incur on them and their Ohio region and joined the Pontiac Chief of the Ottawa to reopen frontier warfare wiping out every British post in Ohio.

Proclamation Line of 1763

Proclamation that drew a line along the Appaclachians where beyond that settlers were not allowed to go. This prevented, anymore settlement in the western lands and stop conflict with the Indians.

George Greenville

Elected in 1763, British prime minister/ loyalist. Said that colonies should help pay off the war debt. Believed in mercantilism. Charles Townshend once said to him, "I dare tax the Americans."

Sugar Act

1764, Greenville put through this act to ruin the rum distillers business after so many were smuggling in molasses to make the rum so the act would reduce the urge to smuggle and regulate trades among other goods too.

Currency Act

1764 colonies were facing a shortage of money so England created their own paper money and Parliament in 1751 that forbade colonies to make their own currency legal.

Stamp Act

Feb. 14, 1765, Greenvillle passed this act as a way to make yet even more money by putting revenue stamps on everything.

"No taxation without representation"

reflected the colonists' belief that they should not be taxed because they had no direct representatives in Parliament

Sons of Liberty

Secret society formed by Samuel Adams in 1765 to protest new taxes passed by Parliament. It led the Boston Tea Party and threatened tax collectors; also firm supporters of independence.

Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

Townshend Acts

May/June 1767 Acts that increased government revenues, hurt British manufacturers, increased colonial costs and accelerated colonial resistance

Internal Taxes vs External Taxes

Taxes that were imposed on land, on people, on retail items vs Taxes based on oceanic trade, such as port duties. Some colonists thought of them more as a means of regulating trade than as taxes for revenue.

Samuel Adams

1765 Founder of the Sons of Liberty and one of the most vocal patriots for independence; signed the Declaration of Independence

Boston Massacre

1770 The first bloodshed of the American Revolution, as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans


1722 Angry residents of Rhode Island burned this schooner in protest to the Navigation Acts.

Committees of Correspondence

1772 organized by patriot leader Samuel Adams, was a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies. They provided the organization necessary to unite the colonies in opposition to British Parliament.

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773 As a protest against the Tea Act, a group of colonists boarded ships carrying chests of tea and dumped them into Boston Harbor. Britain reacted with the "Intolerable Acts".

Intolerable Acts

1774 A series of laws set up by Parliament to punish Massachusetts for its protests against the British

First Continental Congress

September 1774, delegates from twelve colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss a response to the Intolerable Acts and Independence. Adopted Declaration of American Rights.

Lexington and Concord

The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.

Second Continental Congress

the Continental Congress that convened in May 1775, approved the Declaration of Independence, and served as the only agency of national government during the Revolutionary War.

Thomas Paine's Common Sense

1776 articles attacking allegiance to British Monarchy. Thomas Paine believed Britain failed to responsibly deal with the colonies' rebellion and that the colonies should declare their independence.

Thomas Jefferson

Main author of the Declaration of Independence

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776, explains reasons for colonial discontent and rational for Independence. Stated that government gets their powers form the consent of the people who are allowed to alter or abolish those that deny their unalienable rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.


American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independence


American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won

Continental Army

The official army of the colonies, created by second continental congress and led by George Washington


American forces under General Horatio Gates surrounded British militia here and made them surrender on Oct. 17, 1777. Important victory for the colonies because it caused the French Alliance.

French Alliance

Feb. 6, 1778 when the French heard about the colonists' victory at Saratoga, they proceeded to make an alliance with America solely to angry/defeat their enemy, the British.

Valley Forge

Washington retreated to this place in Pennsylvania for the winter after the Battle of Trenton


he was the leader of the British army who surrendered to George Washington at the end of the war


in 1779 during the American Revolution the British under Cornwallis surrendered after a siege of three weeks by American and French troops

Peace of Paris 1783

France and Britain signed this treaty where Great Britain granted America their independence. British wouldn't seek to collect war debts either.


a form of government in which people elect representatives to create and enforce laws

Articles of Confederation

a constitution drafted in 1777 and ratified in 1781; weak central govt. that could make laws or regular commerce

Shay's Rebellion

1787 , this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes

Northwest Ordinance

Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states. Excluded slavery in those areas.

3/5 Clause

delegates of slave states decided to count 3/5 of their slaves as a basis for apportioning representatives & tax votes.

Separation of Powers

the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government

Anti-Federalist vs Federalist

individuals who opposed ratification of the Constitution vs A person in support of a new United States Constitution.

Constitution Convention

A meeting of 55 delegates from 12 colonies in Philadelphia in 1787 who drafted the U.S. first constitution

Checks and Balances

A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power

New Jersey Plan

June 1787 New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress

Virginia Plan

May 1787 Plan that promoted representation by population and Government with separate legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

"The Great Compromise"

This plan or compromise was proposed by Roger Sherman, He proposed that the Congress would have two houses. A Senate and a House of Reps. Each state would have equal representation. And they would be based on population.

Alien and Sedition Acts

acts passed by federalists giving the government power to imprison or deport foreign citizens and prosecute critics of the government

Jay's Treaty

negotiated the withdrawal of British troops from the Northwest Territories, America in return would pay debts off to England and the English would retrieve troops as well as give compensation to American shippers for interrupting their trade

Pickney's Treaty

granted U.S. right to navigate the Mississippi and deposit goods at new Orleans

Washington's Neutrality Proclamation

April 22, 1793 by president Washington. He wanted the U.S. to stay neutral within the war between Britain and France.

John Adams

2nd President of the United States in 1796. Agreed with republican balance of aristocratic, democratic, and monarchical elements in government.

Kentucky and Virgina Resolutions

denounced the alien and sedition act as unconstitutional and reminded states that they had the right to say when congress had stepped out of line.

Washington's Farewell Address

His address that advised neutrality and avoidance of political parties., Warned Americans not to get involved in European affairs, not to make permanent alliances, not to form political parties and to avoid sectionalism.

John Jay

1789 First chief justice of the Supreme Court

Funding and Assumption

Hamilton's aggressive financial policies of paying off all federal bonds and taking on all state debts

National Bank

(1791) part of Hamilton's economic plan that would provide a common currency and source of capital for economy. Strongly opposed by James Madison.

Conflict with France

1792: Britain and France went to war after King Louis XVI was executed. Americans decided to stay neutral.

Implied Powers

Using broad construction to interpret the Constitution

Alexander Hamilton

1789-1795; First Secretary of the Treasury. He advocated creation of a national bank, assumption of state debts by the federal government, and a tariff system to pay off the national debt.

President Washington

1789 became electoral President by unanimous vote of 69 votes. had remarkable capacity for moderation and meditation to help keep new nation together.

Quartering Act

these acts were essentially a punishment for the colonies anti-british behavior. These acts closed the boston port until the tea was paid for, colonists had to provide lodging for british troops, and made the colony of massachusetts's council completely appointive.

Quartering Act

these acts were essentially a punishment for the colonies anti-british behavior. These acts closed the boston port until the tea was paid for, colonists had to provide lodging for british troops, and made the colony of massachusetts's council completely appointive.

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